Rhynochetus jubata Kagu
Res New Caledonia.
F: New Caledonia (PTRB, Quested; up to 5 PTRB from 1 km before Grand Kaori Tree to camp site at river, Fairbank; "common" PTRB Oct-Nov (T. Clarke); readily seen near Grand Kaori and at start of Piste Pourina, Gregory).


Ardeotis australis Australian Bustard
Acc NZ (NI ca Nov 1998-Jan 1999, BIRDING-NZ).


Rostratula benghalensis Greater Painted-Snipe
R. b. australis Acc Lord Howe I, NZ (Aug SI).


Haematopus ostralegus Eurasian Oystercatcher
H. o. osculans Cas Ogasawara Is, Iwo Is. Acc Mariana Is (Guam).
H. finschi South Island Pied Oystercatcher
Treatment of finschi as an allospecies of H. ostralegus and of longirostris and unicolor as allospecies of each other (Sibley and Monroe 1990) appears logical, based on appearance and behavior. Data in Baker (1977; see Christidis and Boles 1994) suggest that longirostris and unicolor are more closely related to palliatus than to the ostralegus group.
Res total pop 85,000 inds NZ (NI, SI). Acc Sep Vanuatu, Lord Howe I, Sep Norfolk I (Hermes), Chatham Is, Dec-Feb Snares Is (Miskelly et al 2001), Campbell I (Heather and Robertson 1996, but not listed OSNZ).
H. palliatus American Oystercatcher
This taxon, considered by Sibley and Monroe (1990) to include the birds of the Galapagos Is, is treated as an allospecies of H. ostralegus by Sibley and Monroe (1990).
H. p. galapagensis Res Galapagos Is 100 prs.
F: Galapagos Is (Santiago: pr with young Puerto Egas; also Fernandina, Isabela, Espanola, Chartier).
H. longirostris (Australian) Pied Oystercatcher
The records listed here may be of H. longirostris or H. finschi.
Acc Jul-Sep Norfolk I, Sep-Dec and Apr Lord Howe I.
H. unicolor Variable Oystercatcher
Res NZ (NI 2700 inds, SI 1150 inds, Stewart I 150 inds).
H. chathamensis Chatham Oystercatcher
Treatment as an allospecies of H. unicolor where black form has been lost seems logical, although considered full species by OSNZ and other authors.
Res Chatham Is 100-200 inds.


Himantopus himantopus Black-winged Stilt
Many authors (Hayman et al 1986; HANZAB) consider himantopus, mexicanus, knudseni, and leucocephalus subspecies of himantopus.
H. h. himantopus Vis Mariana Is (D. Pratt). Cas Ogasawara Is, Palau, Caroline Is (Yap). Acc Iwo Is (Iwojima), Hawaiian Is (May Kure I).
F: Palau (Peleliu: 3 small pool n end, Dec, Talbot).
H. mexicanus Black-necked Stilt
Res Galapagos Is. Acc Revillagigedo Is.
F: Galapagos Is (Isabela: 38 mostly at Puerto Villamil; San Cristobal: Lago de Junco, Chartier).
H. knudseni Hawaiian Stilt
Considered by some authors conspecific with H. mexicanus Black-necked Stilt.
Res Hawaiian Is except Lanai.
F: Hawaiian Is (Oahu: Amorient Aquafarm; Kauai: Hanalei, Hanapepe Salt Pans; Mauai: Kanaha Pond, Pratt 1993).
H. leucocephalus White-headed (Pied) Stilt
Considered by some authors conspecific with H. himantopus. Most NZ birds show plumage and structural effects of introgression with H. novaezealandiae Black Stilt (HANZAB).
Res total pop 30,000 inds NZ (NI, SI, Stewart I), Chatham Is. Cas Nov-Aug Norfolk I (Moore 1999). Acc Lord Howe I, Bounty Is, Apr-May Macquarie I.
H. novaezelandiae Black Stilt
Res NZ (SI 119 inds, 47 of which in captivity, Heather and Robertson 1996; only 8 prs breeding in the wild Jan 2002, P. Seddon; res formerly NI; vis Jan-Aug NI.
Recurvirostra novaehollandiae Red-necked Avocet
Cas NZ (SI). Acc Norfolk I (early 1854, Moore 1999).


Esacus neglectus (=magnirostris, giganteus) Beach Thick-Knee
Christidis and Boles (1994) discussed the correct name of this species.
Res Solomon Is, New Caledonia, Vanuatu.
F: Solomon Is (Vella Lavella; Kolombangara: Kukudu, Hornbuckle 1999; New Georgia Is: Uepi, Talbot, Talbot).


Stiltia isabella Australian Pratincole
Acc Lord Howe I (Hutton 1991).
Glareola maldivarum Oriental Pratincole
Vis Sep-Apr Palau, Caroline Is (Yap, Truk). Cas Marshall Is, New Caledonia, NZ (Nov-May NI,SI, Stewart I). Acc Iwo Is (Kitaiwojima), Solomon Is (Bougainville), Apr Lord Howe I, May Norfolk I (Moore 1999), May Kermadec Is.
G. lactea Small Pratincole
Hypo Mariana Is (Guam, Pyle and Engbring 1985). A report from Mariana Is (Saipan) is considered incorrect (Pyle and Engbring 1985).


Phillips (1980) studied courtship and related behaviors in endemic NZ plovers and concluded that Anarhynchus be merged with Charadrius. Phillips (1980) also proposed that C. bicinctus Double-banded Plover, C. (=Anarhynchus) frontalis Wrybill, and C. obscurus Red-breasted Dotterel are closest relatives of each other and are derived from the C. alexandrinus Kentish Plover group of northern hemisphere mountain- or plains-breeding plovers. Phillips (1980) postulated that ancestral wintering birds bred in NZ during the austral summer and founded the now-endemic NZ species studied.

Pluvialis fulva Pacific Golden-Plover
Measurements suggest birds reaching Australia and S. Pacific may be from both Siberia and Alaska; Siberian birds are smaller (HANZAB).
Vis Aug-Apr throughout c and w Pacific; vis winter with a few summer Ogasawara Is and Palau, Feb-May and Jul-Oct Mariana Is, Sep-Nov Solomon Is (Bougainville), Aug-May Norfolk I, Sep-May Cook Is. Cas e and s to Guadalupe I, Revillagigedo Is, Clipperton I, Galapagos Is, Auckland Is. Acc Feb Macquarie I (Schultz fide M. Carter).
F: Niue (common, Powlesland et al 2000).
P. dominicus American Golden-Plover
Acc NZ (Jan NI, Nov SI), Galapagos Is.
P. squatarola Grey (Black-bellied) Plover
Vis Aug-May Hawaiian Is, Mariana Is, Palau, Caroline Is (Yap, Truk), Marshall Is, NZ (max 10 per year, NI, SI), Revillagigedo Is, Clipperton I, Galapagos Is. Cas s to Ogasawara Is (winter Chichijima), Oct-Dec Solomon Is, New Caledonia, Fiji (Oct Viti Levu: Suva), Cook Is (Manuae Aug, Holyoak 1980), Lord Howe I, Dec Kermadec Is, Chatham Is, Feb Macquarie I.
F: Galapagos Is (Fernandina: one basic plge Punta Espinosa Jun-Jul, Chartier).
Charadrius hiaticula Common Ringed Plover
C. h. tundrae Vis Palau. Cas Iwo Is, Mariana Is (Guam), Hawaiian Is (Midway I), Kiribati (Jun, Child 1982). Acc Tuvalu, Fiji, NZ (NI); recs from these locations may be either hiaticula or semipalmatus). Hypo Marshall Is (sight rec Jaluit likely this species; Pyle and Engbring 1985).
C. semipalmatus Semipalmated Plover
Vis Aug-May Revillagigedo Is, Clipperton I, Galapagos Is, Aug-Oct and Apr-May Hawaiian Is. Acc Johnson I, Samoa (Dec Upolu, Watling 2001). Hypo Marshall Is (Pyle and Engbring 1985).
F: Galapagos Is (Santiago: 13 Puerto Egas; Fernandina: Punta Espinoa, alt plge Jun-Jul, Chartier).
C. dubius Little Ringed Plover
C. d. curonicus Vis Palau, Caroline Is (Yap). Cas s Izu Is (Torishima), Ogasawara Is (Nishinoshima), Iwo Is (Kitaiwojima). Hypo Mariana Is (Guam), Marshall Is (Pyle and Engbring 1985). Acc Solomon Is.
C. wilsonia Wilson's Plover
C. w. beldingi? Acc Galapagos Is (May Santa Maria).
C. vociferus Killdeer
C. v. vociferus Cas Sep-Apr Hawaiian Is, Guadalupe I, Revillagigedo Is, Clipperton I, Galapagos Is (Isabela).
C. placidus Long-billed Plover
C. p. japonicus Acc Ogasawara Is (Hahajima).
C. alexandrinus Kentish Plover
C. a. nihonensis Vis Palau. Cas Mariana Is (Saipan, prob this subsp rather than C. a. alexandrinus, which is rare in Japan, Brazil 1991). Acc Ogasawara Is (Nishinoshima).
C. ruficapillus Red-capped Plover
Cas NZ (NI, SI).
C. bicinctus Double-banded Plover
C. b. bicinctus Res total pop 6850 inds (NI, SI), Chatham Is. Vis Jan-Aug Lord Howe I, Norfolk I, Kermadec Is, Apr-Aug Fiji (Watling 2001). Cas Vanuatu, New Caledonia, Campbell I.
F: Norfolk I (Kingston Marshes Mar, Duranti; 15 Slaughter Bay May, R. Clarke).
C. b. exilis Res Auckland Is 730 inds.
Elevated to specific status by Holdaway et al (2001) based on weight and leg length.
C. (=Anarhynchus) frontalis Wrybill
Res 5000 ins NZ (Breeds SI; vis NI mostly Dec-Aug.
C. obscurus Red-breasted (New Zealand) Plover
C. o. aquilonius Res total 1350 inds NZ (NI, SI).
C. o. obscurus Res NZ (Stewart I 15 prs, 65 inds).
C. mongolus Lesser Sand-Plover (Mongolian Plover)
C. m. stegmanni Vis Mariana Is, Palau, Caroline Is, Marshall Is. Cas s Izu Is, Iwo Is (Kitaiwojima, Iwojima).
C. m. mongolus ?Cas Micronesia (Baker 1951), Solomon Is (Mayr and Diamond 2001), Fiji (Watling 2001, duPont 1976).
C. m. atrifrons/schaeferi Acc NZ (Apr NI, Parrish 2000).
C. m. subsp? Cas Hawaiian Is, Solomon Is incl Santa Cruz Is, Vanuatu, New Caledonia, Lord Howe I, Norfolk I, NZ (most 7 per year, NI, SI; most prob mongolus/stegmanni, as in Australia, but see above re atrifrons/schaeferi).
F: Fiji (Viti Levu: Mar, Myers). Solomon Is (Bougainville: 3 Aug, Gregory).
C. leschenaultii Greater Sand-Plover
C. l. leschenaultii Vis Mariana Is, Palau, Caroline Is (Yap, Truk, Kosrae), Sep-Apr Solomon Is. Cas Sep-Apr Vanuatu, New Caledonia, Lord Howe I, NZ (most 11 per year, NI, SI).
C. veredus Oriental Plover
Cas Palau, Aug-Mar NZ (NI, SI), Solomon Is (Bougainville, Rennell). Acc Sep Lord Howe I, Kermadec Is (Apr Raoul I), Fiji (May Viti Levu).
Thinornis novaeseelandiae Shore Plover
Included in Charadrius by Holdaway et al (2001).
Res Chatham Is (South East I 125 inds, Western Reef 30 inds). Extirp NZ (NI,SI; reint NI: Motuora I, Portland I; acc elsewhere NI, presumably from recently reint populations, Saville).
Erythrogonys cinctus Red-kneed Dotterel
Acc Palau (Engbring 1988), NZ (Mar NI).
Eudromias morinellus Eurasian Dotterel
Acc Hawaiian Is (Kure I).
Elseyornis melanops Black-fronted Dotterel
Res NZ (NI 1350 inds, SI 280 inds).
Vanellus tricolor Banded Lapwing
Acc Jul-Aug Lord Howe I.
V. miles Masked Lapwing
V. m. novaehollandiae Res NZ (NI, SI), Chatham Is. Acc Feb and Nov Norfolk I, Feb and Jul Fiji (Viti Levu: Suva, Watling 2001), May Snares Is (Miskelly et al 2001), Jun Campbell I, Nov Antipodes Is (Tennyson et al 2002), Sep (Milius) and Oct (R. Clarke) Macquarie I.
V. m. miles Res Lord Howe I (HANZAB; this form Bielewicz). Acc Solomon Is (New Georgia Is).