Placement of the caracaras within Falconidae was confirmed by Griffiths (1999; see also Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001).

Falco berigora Brown Falcon
Acc Lord Howe I (Hutton 1991).
F. sparverius American Kestrel
F. s. fernandensis Res Juan Fernandez Is (Isla Robinson Crusoe =Mas Atierra).
F. s. guadalupensis Res Guadalupe I.
F. s. subsp. Cas mostly Oct-Apr Revillagigedo Is (AOU 1998); ?Desventuradas Is (Palmer 1988).
F. tinnunculus Common Kestrel
F. c. interstinctus Cas s Izu Is, Ogasawara Is, Iwo Is. Acc Mariana Is (Saipan).
F. cenchroides Nankeen (Australian) Kestrel
F. c. cenchroides Res Lord Howe I, Norfolk I. Cas New Caledonia, NZ (NI, SI).
F: Lord Howe I (seen Apr, Bielewicz); Norfolk I (5+ Point Howe, Kingston, Anson Bay, Duranti).
F. columbarius Merlin
F. c. subsp? Vis Oct-Apr Revillagigedo Is. Acc Hawaiian Is (Scott et al 2001).
F. subbuteo Northern Hobby
F. s. subsp? Hypo Mariana Is ("just possibly" Guam, Pagan, Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001, but considered hypo Mariana Is by Pyle and Engbring 1985).
F. severus Oriental Hobby
F. s. papuanus Res Solomon Is (Buka, Bougainville, Choiseul, Ghizo, Kolombangara, Guadalcanal, Makira, Santa Isabel, Mayr and Diamond 2001). Hypo Palau (Pyle and Engbring 1985).
F: Solomon Is (Bougainville: moderately abundant s, Schodde 1977).
F. novaezeelandiae New Zealand Falcon
Res total pop 3000-4500 prs NZ (NI, SI, Stewart I 190 prs), Auckland Is 10 prs. Acc Campbell I (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001).
F. subniger Black Falcon
Acc NZ (Nov NI, Jan SI).
F. peregrinus Peregrine Falcon
F. p. fruitii Extinct? Res Iwo Is (4 prs Kitaiwojima), ?Ogasawara Is (Brazil 1991). Acc s Izu Is (Torishima).
F. p. ernesti Res Solomon Is (Guadalcanal, Anusagaru I off Bougainville, Three Sisters Is, Mayr and Diamond 2001, Kolombangara, Richards).
F: Solomon Is (Guadalcanal: Mt Austen, Richards, Hornbuckle; Kolombangara: Camp Professor, Richards).
F. p. nesiotes Res New Caledonia, Loyalty Is, Vanuatu, Fiji 20 prs (Watling 2001).
F: New Caledonia (Noumea, Quested; PTRB Oct, T. Clarke).
F. p. japonensis Vis Nov-Jul Palau, Caroline Is (Yap), Mariana Is (Guam). Acc s Izu Is (Torishima), Iwo Is (Kitaiwojima), Hawaiian Is (US Nat Mus Proc 124; 1968).
F. p. subsp? Vis Oct-Apr Guadalupe I, Revillagigedo Is, Clipperton I, Galapagos Is (mostly Nov-Mar, but also May-Jun). Cas Sep-May Hawaiian Is. Acc Samoa (Savaii). At sea far from land on occasion (Palmer 1988).
Caracara lutosa Guadalupe Caracara
Extinct; formerly res Guadalupe I (Howell and Webb 1995).
Milvago chimango Chimango Caracara
M. c. subsp? Int Easter I.


The species eremita and layardi are sometimes considered subspecies of freycinet, widespread from Malysia through Melanesia. They are treated here as species within a superspecies (Sibley and Monroe 1990).

Megapodius eremita Melanesian Scrubfowl
M. e. brenchleyi Res Solomon Is except Rennell and Bellona.
Solomon Is (F: Kolombangara: near Iriri on track to Mt Veve, Richards, Hornbuckle; Santa Isabel: unc Garanga R, Kratter et al 2001; Buka, Gregory; Ranonnga, Hornbuckle; Vella Lavella, Hornbuckle; Makira: heard, Hornbuckle; Florida Is: Mana I, Talbot).
M. layardi New Hebrides Scrubfowl
Res Vanuatu (Banks Is, islands n and c Vanuatu, Bregulla 1992).
M. laperouse Micronesian Scrubfowl
M. l. laperouse Res Mariana Is except Rota and extirp Guam (Pratt and Bruner 1978).
F: Marpi- forest behind Japanese memorial, Watson).
M. l. senex Res Palau.
F: Palau (Peleliu, Angaur, de Vries; most Kayangel and limestone islands with beaches, Engbring 1988; Peleliu: 2 on side track betw road and Orange Beach, Talbot; 4 in forest near Japanese War HQ, S. Smith).
M. pritchardii Polynesian Scrubfowl
Res Tonga (Niuafoou; int Tafahi [failed? Watling 2001], Late, Fonualei). Extirp (this sp?) Kermadec Is. (Holdaway 2001).


Family doubtfully distinct from Phasianidae (Christidis and Boles 1994).

Meleagris gallopavo Wild Turkey
M. g. silvestris Int Hawaiian Is (Niihau, Lanai, Maui, Hawaii; most now hybrids).
M. g. intermedia Int Hawaiian Is (Hawaii, Niihau, Lanai, Maui; most now hybrids).
F: Hawaiian Is (Hawaii: west end Saddle Rd, Lindsay).
M. g. mexicana Int NZ (NI, SI).
M. g. subsp. Int Fiji (Taveuni, Laucala, Naitauba; int and extirp Makogai, Mago, Watling 2001).


Callipepla californica California Quail
OSNZ (1990) shows that C. c. brunnescens is the subspecies introduced to New Zealand, whereas Long (1981) suggested that brunnescens and californicus were both introduced there and to the Hawaiian Is. Madge and McGowan (2002) indicate instead that achrustera was introduced to both New Zealand and Hawaiian Is.
C. c. californicus Int Norfolk I from NZ, NZ (NI, SI), Chatham Is, Hawaiian Is (Kauai, Lanai, Maui, Hawaii; most now hybrids with C. c. brunnescens). Int Lord Howe I, now extirpated (Hutton 1991).
F: Norfolk I (common, Duranti).
C. c. brunnescens Int NZ (NI, SI), Chatham Is, Hawaiian Is (Kauai, Lanai, Mauai, Hawaii, most now hybrids with californicus). Int Juan Fernandez Is (Mas Afuera I).
F: Hawaiian Is (Hawaii: Puu Lauu large flocks, Lindsay).
C. gambelii Gambel's Quail
C. g. subsp? Int Hawaiian Is (Hawaii, Lanai, Kahoolawe).
F: Hawaiian Is (Hawaii: Keanakolu Rd between Mauna Kea Rd and Hakalau Forest NWR in rocky places, Pratt 1993; Pohakuloa on verge, Lindsay).


Alectoris rufa Red-legged Partridge
Int NZ (NI, Chambers 2000).
A. chukar Chukar
A. c. chukar Int NZ (SI, most hybrids with A. c. korovoakovi, but see HANZAB: little evidence for this), Hawaiian Is except Oahu (Long 1981).
F: Hawaiian Is (Hawaii: Waimea Plains behind cement plant; Keanakolu Rd, Lindsay; Maui: between lower vis center and summit in Haleakala NP, Pratt 1993).
Francolinus pondicerianus Grey Francolin
F. p. interpositus? Int Hawaiian Is except Oahu (Long 1981), but now present Oahu (Pratt 1993).
F: Hawaiian Is (Maui: lowlands; Oahu: Na Laau Arboretum, Pratt 1993; Hawaii: Waikoloa, Lindsay).
F. francolinus Black Francolin
F. f. subsp? Int Hawaiian Is (Molokai, Maui, Lanai, Hawaii), Mariana Is (Guam).
F: Hawaiian Is (Hawaii: highways South Kohala, Pratt 1993; Saddle Rd, Parker Ranch; Maui: Keokea area, Pratt).
F. erckelii Erckel's Francolin
F. e. erckelii? Int Hawaiian Is.
F: Hawaiian Is (Kauai: road between Waimea Canyon and Kokee SP, Pratt 1993; Hawaii: Keanakolu Rd, Lindsay).
Coturnix japonica Japanese Quail
Int Hawaiian Is except Oahu.
F: Hawaiian Is (Kauai: between Anahola and Kilauea; Hawaii: Keanakolu Rd above Hakalau Forest NWR; sneezy calls early in morning spr and summer, Pratt 1993).
C. novaezelandiae New Zealand Quail
Some authors (eg OSNZ) consider conspecific with C. pectoralis Stubble Quail, but consistent plumage and structural differences (HANZAB).
Extinct. Res formerly NZ (NI, Great Barrier I, SI).
C. ypsilophora Brown Quail
Although subspecies australis and ypsilophora said to have been int to NZ (see Long 1981), specimens examined are consistent with australis (HANZAB). In any event, the subsp are doubtfully distinct (Christidis and Boles 1994).
C. y. australis Int (poss self-int?) NZ (NI). Int Fiji (Viti Levu, Vanua Levu, Makogai [where now extirp- Watling 2001]).
C. chinensis Blue-breasted Quail
C. c. lineata Int Mariana Is (Guam).
Bambusicola thoracicus Chinese Bamboo Partridge
David and Gosselin (2002b) established that Bambusicola is masculine.
B. t. thoracicus Int Iwo Is (Iwojima).
Gallus gallus Red Jungle-Fowl
Int Mariana Is but extirp Guam, Palau, Caroline Is, Marshall Is, Kiribati, Hawaiian Is (Kauai, Oahu), Society Is, Marquesas Is, Tuamotu Is, Tubuai Is, Gambier Is, New Caledonia incl Isle of Pines, Vanuatu, Fiji but extirp Viti Levu and Vanua Levu, Norfolk I, Samoa, Wallis and Futuna, Tonga, Tokelau Is, Cook Is (Rarotonga, Holyoak 1980); interbreeding with domestic strains common. Int, now extirpated, NZ (NI,SI, HANZAB), Lord Howe I (Hutton 1991).
F: Norfolk I (very common, Duranti). Palau (Peleliu and Angaur, de Vries; abund Peleliu and Angaur, less common Babeldaob and Koror, Engbring 1988; Peleliu: 12 in forest, S. Smith). Caroline Is (Yap: low nos forest, S. Smith). Mariana Is (Saipan, Rota: low nos forest, S. Smith). Samoa (Savaii: rather timid, not near coast, Reed 1980). Kiribati (scattered throughout, Child 1982). Fiji (Taveuni: 2 heard lower elevations transmitter rd, Sargeant 1992). Hawaiian Is (Kauai: most at Kokee SP are "real", with dull-colored legs, Pratt 1993).
Lophura leucomelanos Kalij Pheasant
Int Hawaiian Is (Hawaii), apparently mix of subspecies leucomelanos and hamiltoni, T. Pratt).
F: Hawaiian Is (Hawaii: Mauna Loa Rd incl Kipuka Puaulu, Pratt 1993; Devastation Trail in Volcano Park, Lindsay).
Phasianus colchicus Common (Ring-necked) Pheasant
Birds introduced to Hawaiian Is and New Zealand are of several subspecies, including colchicus, torquatus, and mongolicus, which have hybridized to varying extents; in the Hawaiian Is pure torquatus may still occur on Lanai (Long 1981).
Int Hawaiian Is 70,000 inds in 1951 (Kauai, Oahu, Maui, Hawaii), New Zealand (NI,SI).
F: Hawaiian Is (Kauai: hillside near albatross nests Kilauea Pt, Lindsay; Waimea Canyon Rd. Hawaii: Huehue and from Volcano to Kau).
P. versicolor Green Pheasant
Some authors (see Madge and McGowan 2002) consider this taxon a good species; it occurs in apparently pure form sympatric with colchicus/torquatus in Hawaiian Is (Hawaii: Mauna Loa, Mauna Kea, Long 1981).
Int Hawaiian Is (Hawaii, Kauai, Lanai, ?Maui, AOU 1998).
F: Windward slopes Mauna Kea, Mauna Loa (Pratt 1987).
Pavo cristatus Indian Peafowl
Int NZ (NI, SI), Hawaiian Is (Hawaii, Oahu, Niihau, Maui).


Turnix maculosus Red-backed Buttonquail
David and Gosselin (2002b) established that Turnix is masculine.
T. m. salamonis Res Solomon Is (Guadalcanal).
F: May be threatened by habitat loss (Madge and McGowan 2002).
T. varius Painted Buttonquail
T. v. novaecaledoniae Extinct? Res New Caledonia.


Rallina fasciata Red-legged Crake
Acc Palau (Engbring 1988, Taylor 1998, Baker 1951).
R. eurizonoides Slaty-legged Crake
R. e. eurizonoides Res Palau (all islands Babeldaob to Angaur, Engbring 1988).
F: Palau (dense cover near humans, damp areas in forests, sometimes calls from trees, Engbring 1988).
Laterallus spilonotus Galapagos Rail
Res Galapagos Is (Pinta, Isabela, Fernandina, Santiago, Santa Cruz, San Cristobal, Floreana).
Nesoclopeus woodfordi Woodford's Rail
N. w. tertius Res Solomon Is (Bougainville).
F: Solomon Is (Bougainville: common eastern lowlands, Hadden 2002).
N. w. immaculatus Res Solomon Is (Santa Isabel).
F: Solomon Is (Santa Isabel: common along Garanga R, Kratter et al 2001).
N. w. woodfordi Extinct? Res Solomon Is (Guadalcanal).
N. w. subsp? Res? Solomon Is (Choiseul: Taylor 1998; New Georgia Is: Blaber 1990; Kolombangara: Hadden 2002; Malaita: Hadden 2002).
N. poecilopterus Bar-winged Rail
Extinct? Res Fiji (Viti Levu, Ovalau. Extinct Taveuni).
Gallirallus australis Weka
Total population 25,000-100,000 (Taylor 1998).
G. a. greyi Res NZ (NI 650 inds, now restricted to East Cape, Forest and Bird, Aug 2000). Int Kapiti I (where pop mixed greyi and australis), Mokoia I 100 inds, Rakitu I 135 inds, Kawau I 3700 inds, Pakatoa I 80 inds, Whanganui I 28-40 inds .
G. a. australis Res NZ (n and w SI. Int Kapiti I, Chatham Is.
G. a. hectori DNA studies indicate this is a color phase of G. a. australis. Int Chatham Is (Chatham I 38,000-58,000 inds, Pitt I. Res formerly e SI, now extirpated).
G. a. scotti Res NZ (Stewart Is. Int Solander Is, Kapiti I), Macquarie I (extirpated by 1988).
G. lefresnayanus New Caledonian Rail
Extinct? Res New Caledonia.
F: New Caledonia (may still exist in small numbers, Stokes 1980).
G. sylvestris Lord Howe Rail
Includes G. conditicius Gilbert Rail, the single specimen probably an immature of this species (Taylor 1998).
Res Lord Howe I 200 inds.
F: Lord Howe I (readily seen, Quested; seen Kentia Palm-banyan habitat Little Island area of Mt Lidgbird, attracted by clapping, Bielewicz; ripping up grass on golfcourse, Jordan; grove of palms just before Little I, Walker).
G. philippensis Buff-banded Rail
G. p. pelewensis Res Palau.
F: Palau (seen Peleliu and Angaur, de Vries; throughout except high limestone islands, abund Peleliu and Angaur, Engbring 1988).
G. p. christophori Res Solomon Is (?Florida, Guadalcanal, Russell Is: Mbanika, Malaita, Makira, Ugi Is, Three Sisters Is, Santa Ana, Santa Catalina, Mayr and Diamond 2001).
F: Solomon Is (Makira: common morning and evening road east of Kirakira, Richards; 2-5 lowlands, Hornbuckle 1999); Guadalcanal: 1+ Mt Austen, Hornbuckle 1999).
G. p. sethsmithi Res Vanuatu, Fiji except Viti Levu and Vanua Levu, Rotuma, Tuvalu (this subsp? Watling 2001).
F: Fiji (Kadavu: only place seen, T. Clarke).
G. p. swindellsi Res New Caledonia, Loyalty Is.
F: New Caledonia (PTRB, Mt Koghi, Quested), Loyalty Is (Lifou, Quested).
G. p. goodsoni Res Samoa, Niue (Schodde and de Naurois 1982).
F: Samoa (Mt Vaea, Vaisigano, Lonsdale; Savaii: in open, Reed 1980).
G. p. ecaudatus (=forsteri) Res Tonga, Wallis and Futuna (Taylor 1998).
G. p. mellori (incl norfolkensis) Res Lord Howe I, Norfolk I.
F: Lord Howe I (seen, Quested, Bielewicz). Norfolk I (heard Cockpit Feb, Moore 1999).
G. p. tounelieri Res Coral Sea Is (Chesterfield Is, Willis Is, Surprise Is, Schodde and de Naurois 1982, but see HANZAB).
G. p. assimilis Res NZ (NI, SI, Stewart I), Auckland Is.
G. p. macquariensis
Considered a full species by some authors.
Extinct. Res formerly Macquarie I.
G. rovianae Roviana Rail
Distinctive form on Kolombangara appears to be a separate, undescribed, subspecies (Taylor 1998).
Res Solomon Is (Kolombangara; New Georgia Is: New Georgia, Rendova, Kohinggo, Vonavona, Diamond 1991).
F: Solomon Is (Kolombangara: 3 at Kukundu Guest House, 2 airstrip morning and evening, Richards).
G. owstoni Guam Rail
Res Mariana Is (Guam, where extirpated ca 1986, but reint 50 inds Anderson Air Force Base 2003; reint Rota).
G. wakensis Wake Rail
Extinct. Res formerly Wake I.
G. pacificus Tahiti Rail
Extinct. Res formerly Society Is (Tahiti, Mehetia).
G. dieffenbachii Dieffenbach's Rail
That this taxon is a good species is established by Worthy and Holdaway (2002).
Extinct. Res formerly Chatham Is.
Cabalus modestus Chatham Rail
This species is often included in Gallirallus; recent studies indicate that it is a Gallirallus derivative (Trewick 1997). Features such as sexually dimorphic bill size are suggestive of differentiation at the generic level.
Extinct. Res formerly Chatham Is.
Rallus limicola Virginia Rail
R. l. subsp? Acc Clipperton I.
Lewinia muelleri Auckland Rail
Sometimes considered a subspecies of L. pectoralis Lewin's Rail (Taylor 1998). Sometimes placed in genus Dryolimnas.
Res Auckland Is (Adams I 1500 inds, Disappointment I "several hundred" inds).
Amaurornis moluccana Rufous-tailed Bush-Hen
Sometimes considered conspecific with A. olivacea (Taylor 1998; Mayr and Diamond 2001). That Amaurornis is feminine is discussed by David and Gosselin (2002a); phoenicurus, however, is invariable.
A. m. nigrifrons Solomon Is (res central islands except where ultima occurs, incl Bougainville, Choiseul, New Georgia Is, Santa Isabel, Kratter et al 2001).
F: Solomon Is (Santa Isabel: rare Garanga R, Kratter et al 2001; Bougainville: heard Arawa area, Gregory; Kolombangara; Malaita: 2 (this subsp?) Hornbuckle).
A. m. ultima Res Solomon Is (Makira, Ugi Is, Santa Ana, Santa Catalina, Gower I off Ndai I).
A. olivacea Plain Bush-Hen
A. o. subsp? Acc Palau (May Pulo Anna).
A. phoenicurus White-breasted Water-Hen
A. p. phoenicurus Acc Ogasawara Is (Jan Hahajima).
Porzana pusilla Baillon's (Marsh) Crake
P. p. pusilla Res Iwo Is (Kitaiwojima, Taylor 1998).
P. p. affinis Res NZ (NI, Little Barrier I, SI, Stewart I), Chatham Is.
P. p. palustris Acc Aug Lord Howe I, Feb Macquarie I.
P. palmeri Laysan Crake
Extinct. Res Hawaiian Is (Formerly Laysan I. Int Midway Is: Eastern, Sand, but now extirpated.
P. carolina Sora
Cas Galapagos Is (Marchena, Genovesa, San Salvador). Acc Clipperton I, Hawaiian Is (Sep Hawaii, Pyle 2002).
P. sandwichensis Hawaiian Crake
Extinct. Res formerly Hawaiian Is (Hawaii, ?Molokai).
P. fusca Ruddy-breasted Crake
P. f. erythrothorax Vis May-Oct Iwo Is (Taylor 1998).
P. tabuensis Spotless Crake
P. t. tabuensis Res Caroline Is (Kosrae), Solomon Is (Guadalcanal, Makira, Rennell, Mayr and Diamond 2001; throughout, Doughty et al 1999), Santa Cruz Is, Vanuatu, New Caledonia, Fiji (Viti Levu, Taveuni, Ovalau, Onoilau, Gau, Kadavu), Samoa (Savaii, Tau), Tonga, Niue (not seen since 1969, Powlesland et al 2000), Cook Is (Mangaia, Mitiaro, Atiu), Tuamotu Arch, Society Is (Tahiti, Moorea, Raiatea), Marquesas Is, Tubuai Is (Tubuai, Rapa), Pitcairn Is (Oeno I, ?Ducie I).
F: Samoa (heard Vaivai Crater, rare, Bellingham and Davies 1988).
P. t. plumbea (may not be separable from tabuensis, Onley 1982). Res Norfolk I, Kermadec Is (Meyer 40 inds, extirp Raoul), NZ (NI,Three Kings Is, Poor Knights Is, Mayor I, SI, Stewart I), Chatham Is.
P. monasa Kosrae Crake
Extinct. Res formerly Caroline Is (Kosrae, 2 specimens).
P. atra Henderson Crake
Res Pitcairn Is (Henderson I 6200 inds).
P. cinerea White-browed Crake
Some authors place in genus Poliolimnas. Subspecies are not well-defined (Taylor 1998).
P. c. brevipes Extinct Iwo Is (Minamiiwojima, Iwojima, Taylor 1998).
P. c. micronesiae Res Palau (Babeldaob, Koror, Peleliu, Angaur), Caroline Is (Yap, Truk, Pohnpei), Mariana Is (Guam only, where now extirp). Acc Marshall Is (Bikini).
F: Caroline Is (Pohnpei: prob unc res low wetlands, Buden 2000); Palau (wet areas, Engbring 1988); Yap (pond between new road and WWII airport at Gilman village, Watson).
P. c. leucophrys Res Solomon Is (Buka, Bougainville, Guadalcanal, Makira, Three Sisters Is, Mayr and Diamond 2001).
P. c. tannensis Res Vanuatu, New Caledonia, Fiji (Gau, Ovalau, Viti Levu), Samoa (Savaii, Upolu, ?Manua Is, ?Tutuila, Watling 2001).
F: Samoa (Savaii: uncommon, swamps, Reed 1980). Buka (common Jaba Delta etc, Hadden 1981).
Neocrex erythrops Paint-billed Crake
N. e. erythrops Res Galapagos Is (Santa Cruz, Santa Maria, ?San Cristobal, ?Isabela; acc Tower I).
F: Galapagos Is (Santa Cruz: one seen near Santa Rosa, Chartier).
Pardirallus maculatus Spotted Rail
P. m. maculatus? Acc Juan Fernandez Is (Remsen and Parker 1990).
Gallicrex cinerea Watercock
Vis mostly Sep-mid Jan Iwo Is (Taylor 1998). Acc Iwo Is (Kitaiwojima, Brazil 1991), Palau (?Pratt et al 1987).
Porphyrio porphyrio Purple Swamphen
Recent studies suggest that the taxa listed here comprise a separate species P. melanotus Australian Swamphen; see also Trewick (1997), Taylor (1998).
P. p. pelewensis Res Palau (Babeldaob, Koror, Peleliu, Angaur).
P. p. subsp? Res Solomon Is incl Santa Cruz Is.
F: Solomon Is (Rennell: 4 L Tenggano, Richards; Santa Isabel: common Garanga R, Kratter et al 2001).
P. p. aneiteumensis Res Vanuatu incl Banks Is.
P. p. caledonicus Res New Caledonia, Loyalty Is.
F: New Caledonia (PTRB, Quested), 3 near Tontouta airport, Gregory).
P. p. samoensis Res Samoa.
F: Samoa (Savaii: scattered, Reed 1980).
P. p. vitiensis Res Fiji except Vanua Levu and Viti Levu, Rotuma, Tonga, Niue.
P. p. melanotus
Res Norfolk I 40-50 inds, Lord Howe I 30 inds, Kermadec Is (Raoul 11 inds), NZ pop 600,000 inds, HANZAB (NI, SI, Stewart I). Cas Campbell I.
F: Norfolk I (common Kingston Marshes, Duranti; small nos Kingston Common, Chapel Swamp, R. Clarke); 20+ Kingston Common, Hobcroft).
P. p. chathamensis (doubtfully separable from melanotus, HANZAB) Res Chatham Is (Chatham I, Pitt I).
P. albus Lord Howe (White) Swamphen
Extinct. Formerly res Lord Howe I.
P. mantelli North Island Takahe
The case for specific status of this taxon and the next is outlined by Worthy and Holdaway (2002); the taxa are very different and appear to be derived from separate invasions of New Zealand by a proto-Porphyrio (Trewick 1996).
Extinct. Formerly res NZ (NI).
P. hochstetteri South Island Takahe
Res NZ (SI 120 inds. Reint total 80 inds Tiritiri Matangi I, Kapiti I, Mana I, Maud I.
P. martinica American Purple-Gallinule
Included in Porphyrio by recent authors (AOU 2002).
Cas Feb Galapagos Is. Acc Clipperton I.
Pareudiastes pacifica Samoan Moorhen
This species and the next are sometimes included in Gallinula, but skeletal characters suggest separation (Taylor 1998).
Extinct? Res Samoa (Savaii).
F: Samoa (Savaii: two possible sightings 1 km west of Mt Elietoga Aug 1984 while on traverse from end of Asau forestry road towards Mt Silisili in upland forest, Bellingham and Davis 1988).
P. silvestris San Cristobal Moorhen
Extinct? Res Solomon Is (Makira).
Gallinula chloropus Common Moorhen
G. c. indica Vis Ogasawara Is (Chichijima, Hahajima).
G. c. orientalis Res Palau (Angaur; extirp Peleliu, Koror, Babelthuap). Acc Caroline Is this subsp? (Dec Yap, Talbot).
F: Palau (Angaur: seen Dec, de Vries; freshwater ponds Angaur, Engbring 1988; Peleliu: 3 seen, S. Smith; 2 small pool n end, Talbot).
G. c. guami Res 180-445 inds Mariana Is (Saipan, Tinian, Pagan?, extirp Guam).
F: Mariana Is (Saipan: appears to be increasing in 2002 due to wetland construction on new golf courses, R. David; 5 seen old water tank Div Fish and Wildlife, Gorapan, S. Smith).
G. c. sandvicensis Res Hawaiian Is (Kauai, Oahu, reint Molokai).
F: Hawaiian Is (Kauai: Hanalei NWR, Wailua Flats; Oahu: Kawainui Marsh, Campbell NWR, Waialua Lotus Ponds; Molokai: Kakahaia NWR, Pratt 1993).
G. c. cachinnans Res Galapagos Is, Clipperton I.
F: Galapagos Is (Isabela: 25 only at Puerto Villamil; San Cristobal: Lago Junco, Chartier).
G. tenebrosa Dusky Moorhen
G. t. tenebrosa Res (self-int) New Caledonia. Acc Apr Lord Howe I, NZ ( Aug-Oct SI).
G. ventralis Black-tailed Native-Hen
Cas NZ (NI, SI).
Fulica atra Common Coot
F. a. atra Cas Nov-Mar Ogasawara Is, Iwo Is, Mariana Is.
F. a. australis Res 1655-1955 inds NZ (NI, SI). Acc May-Jul Norfolk I, Apr-May Lord Howe I, May-Oct Macquarie I.
F. alai Hawaiian Coot
Res 2000-4000 inds main Hawaiian Is except Lanai. Cas w Hawaiian Is.
F: Hawaiian Is (same places as Common Moorhen; Maui: Kanaha Ponds, Kealia Ponds; Hawaii: Hilo Ponds, Mana Rd Pond, Aimakapa Pond, Pratt 1993).
F. americana American Coot
F. a. americana Res Clipperton I. Cas (acc? ID is difficult) Oct-Apr Hawaiian Is. Acc Revillagigedo Is.


Grus rubicunda Brolga
Acc NZ (Mar-May NI, Jan SI).
G. canadensis Sandhill Crane
G. c. subsp.? Acc Hawaiian Is (Scott et al 2001).