Taxonomy within this large family is somewhat unsettled, mainly relative to incomplete understanding of placement within sub-families and tribes. Taxonomy followed by AOU (1998) is used here, including that proposed by Livezey (1991) for the tribe Anatini, suface-feeding, or dabbling, ducks, with some modifications as indicated within species accounts. Subfamiles are Dendrocygninae Whistling-ducks, Anserinae Geese and Swans (including tribes Anserini True Geese and Cygnini Swans), Tadorninae Shelducks, and Anatinae True Ducks (including tribes Anatini Surface-feeding ducks, Aythyini Pochards, Mergini Sea-ducks and Mergansers, and Oxyurini Stiff-tailed ducks).


Dendrocygna guttata Spotted Whistling-Duck
Acc Solomon Is (Aug 2001 Bougainville, Anderson).
D. eytoni Plumed Whistling-Duck
Cas NZ (Mar-Jan NI and SI). Acc Solomon Is (Makira, Rennell).
D. bicolor Fulvous Whistling-Duck
Extirpated (natural introduction?) Hawaiian Is (formerly res Oahu, Kauai).
F: Hawaiian Is (Oahu: only one individual left, Pratt 2002).
D. arcuata Wandering Whistling-Duck
D. a. pygmaea Extirpated Fiji (Mayr and Diamond 2001).
D. a. australis? Cas New Caledonia (has bred, but no sightings since 1970s, Doughty).
D. autumnalis Black-bellied Whistling-Duck
Acc Galapagos Is.


Anser anser Feral (Graylag) Goose
Listed here to account for feral populations in NZ (Heather and Robertson 1996), poss Norfolk I (R. Clarke).
Res NZ (SI).
F: NZ (SI: Otago Harbor, farmland). Norfolk I (flock 30+ Kingston Common May "prob feral", R. Clarke).
A. fabalis Bean Goose
A. f. serrirostris Cas Ogasawara Is (Mukojima, Chichijima).
A. f. curtus This subspecies is intermediate between A. f. rossicus and A. f. serrirostris; its breeding range is unknown and its name no longer regarded as valid. Records from Japan are best synonomized with serrirostris (pers. comm. Joseph Morlan).
Acc Ogasawara Is (Mukojima, Brazil 1991).
A. albifrons Greater White-fronted Goose
A. a. frontalis Cas Nov-Mar Iwo Is, Hawaiian Is. Acc Guadalupe I.
F: Hawaiian Is (Hawaii: Wailoa SP Mar, Lindsay).
A. indicus Bar-headed Goose
Acc Ogasawara Is (Chichijima).
A. caerulescens Snow Goose
A. c. caerulescens Cas Nov-Mar Hawaiian Is. Acc Marshall Is.
A. canagica Emperor Goose
Cas Nov-Mar Hawaiian Is.
Branta sandvicensis Hawaiian Goose (Nene)
Res Hawaiian Is (Hawaii 1000 inds). Int Hawaiian Is (Maui 100 inds, Kauai).
F: Hawaiian Is (Maui: easiest at Haleakala Pk HQ; also Kilauea Crater, esp Waldron Ledge and Keanakakoi Crater, Pratt 1993; Kauai: Hanalei NWR, Lindsay).
B. canadensis Canada Goose
B. canadensis may include two or as many as 4 species based on recent DNA studies; large forms, including maxima, would be included in B. canadensis Canada Goose, while the three small forms may be separate species, B. hutchinsii Richardson's Goose, B. minima Cackling Goose, and B. leucopareia Aleutian Goose (AOU 1998). Data for the Hawaiian Is below are from Engilis (HawaiiBirding 2000).
B. c. minima Cas Hawaiian Is (Oahu, Kauai).
B. c. hutchinsii Vis Nov-Mar Hawaiian Is.
F: Hawaiian Is (Hawaii: Wailoa SP Mar, Lindsay).
B. c. leucopareia Acc Hawaiian Is (Oahu mid-1980s). Two birds reported Marshall Is (Kwajalein) raised in captivity Aleutian Is (Pyle and Engbring 1985).
B. c. taverneri Vis Nov-Mar Hawaiian Is.
B. c. occidentalis Acc Hawaiian Is.
B. c. parvipes Vis Nov-Mar Hawaiian Is.
F: Hawaiian Is (Hawaii: Wailoa SP Mar, Lindsay).
B. c. maxima This subspecies or B. c. canadensis (Angus Wilson).
Int NZ 50,000 inds. Acc Nov Snares Is (Miskelly et al 2001).
B. c subsp? Acc Kiribati (Tarawa); the following records probably of birds derived from NZ: Lord Howe I, New Caledonia (from NZ, Doughty 1999), Kermadec Is, Chatham Is, Auckland Is.
B. bernicla Brant
B. b. nigricans Cas Nov-Mar Hawaiian Is, Guadalupe I.
Cereopsis novaehollandiae Cape Barren Goose
Cas NZ (NI, SI).
Cygnus olor Mute Swan
Int NZ 200 inds (NI, SI).
C. atratus Black Swan
Int NZ 60,000 inds, Chatham Is 3000 inds. Cas Lord Howe I, Norfolk I.
C. columbianus Tundra Swan
C. c. bewickii (incl jankowskii ) Acc Iwo Is (Kitaiwojima).
C. c. subsp? Acc Hawaiian Is (Midway I).
C. cygnus Whooper Swan
Acc Ogasawara Is (Chichijima).


Tadorna tadornoides Australian Shelduck
Res NZ (mostly ne SI 20 inds). Acc Nov-Dec Norfolk I, Kermadec Is (Mar Raoul I), Apr Auckland Is, Dec-Feb Campbell I, Nov-Dec Snares Is.
T. variegata Paradise Shelduck
Res NZ 120,000 inds. Acc Lord Howe I, Chatham Is (South East I).


Aix galericulata Mandarin Duck
Acc Ogasawara Is (Hahajima).
Chenonetta jubata Maned Duck
Cas NZ (NI, SI). Acc Snares Is (one bird 1982-86, Miskelly et al 2001).
Hymenolaimus malacorhynchus Blue Duck
While generally included in Anatinae (see HANZAB), Livezey (1986) considered this species and the next "unusual members" of the Tadorninae.
H. m. malacorhynchus Res NZ (SI 3000 inds).
H. m. hymenolaimus Res NZ (NI 1000 inds).
Malacorhyncus membranaceus Pink-eared Duck
Acc NZ (Jun NI).
A. strepera Gadwall
This species and the next 3 were considered distinct from the remaining members of Anas based on plumage and structural characters and assigned to the genus Mareca by Livezey (1991).
Vis Oct-Mar Hawaiian Is. Res formerly Kiribati (Teraina). Acc Ogasawara Is (Mukojima), Mariana Is (Pyle and Engbring 1985). A report from Marshall Is (Kwajalein) considered incorrect (Pyle and Engbring 1985).
A. falcata Falcated Duck
Acc Hawaiian Is (Oct Midway I, Pyle 2002).
Anas penelope Eurasian Wigeon
Vis Oct-Mar Ogasawara Is, Iwo Is, Mariana Is, Palau, Caroline Is (Yap, Truk), Hawaiian Is. Cas Marshall Is, Palmyra I. Acc Clipperton I.
F: Hawaiian Is (Midway I: 3 at Sand I Apr 1995, Vandenberg). Mariana Is (Saipan: 5 at water tank Div Fish and Wildlife, Gorapan, Feb, S. Smith).
A. americana American Wigeon
Vis Oct-Apr Hawaiian Is. Cas Mariana Is (Guam; Oct Saipan, R. David). Acc Palmyra I, Clipperton I.
A. platyrhynchos Mallard
This species and the next 4 (the "Mallards") are distinct from but share a clade with the "Blue-winged ducks"; this shared clade is a sister clade to the remainder of Anas (Livezey 1991).
Res (feral?) Hawaiian Is. Int New Caledonia early 1970s now prob extirpated (Doughty et al 1999), NZ 3,000,000 inds; self-int prob from NZ to the following: Norfolk I, Lord Howe I, Chatham Is, Antipodes Is, Snares Is 10 prs, Auckland Is, Campbell I, Macquarie I. Vis Nov-Mar Iwo Is, Ogasawara Is. Cas, most poss feral, Mariana Is (Sarigan, nominate migratory form, Pyle and Engbring 1985), Caroline Is (Yap), Marshall Is, Kiribati, Cook Is (Penrhyn, Pukapuka, Suwarrow, Holyoak 1980). Prob some north-south movement at Norfolk I based on banding recoveries (Hermes et al 1986). Acc Vanuatu, Tuvalu, Fiji (Penhallurick 2003), Guadalupe I.
A. wyvilliana Koloa (Hawaiian Duck)
Res Hawaiian Is 2500 inds (Kauai 2000 inds. Reint Oahu 300 inds, Hawaii 200 inds, Maui 5-7 inds, Penhallurick 2003; reint birds mostly interbreeding with Mallard, Pratt 2002).
F: Hawaiian Is (Kauai: common, esp Hanalei NWR, Pratt 1993).
A. laysanensis Laysan Duck
Res Hawaiian Is (Laysan I) 500 inds.
A. superciliosa Pacific Black Duck
Hybridizes extensively NZ and Lord Howe I with Mallard A. platyrhynchos, although some evidence from NZ suggests decreased survivability and reproductive success of hybrids. A. oustaleti Marianas Duck, formerly occurring Mariana Is (Guam, Saipan, Tinian), now extinct, was probably a hybrid swarm with Mallard, as it was highly variable phenotypically (Yamashina, in Baker 1951).
A. s. pelewensis Res Palau (Babeldaob, Koror, Peleliu, Angaur; now very rare, Engbring 1988), Caroline Is (Truk, hypo Yap, Pyle and Engbring 1985), Solomon Is, Vanuatu, New Caledonia, Loyalty Is, Fiji, Samoa (Savaii, Upolu, Tutuila, Manua), Tonga (incl Niuafoou), Wallis and Futuna, Cook Is (Atiu, Mitiaro, Mauke, Mangaia, extirp Rarotonga, extirp Aitutaki, Holyoak 1980), Society Is (Tahiti, Moorea, Maiao, Penhallurick 2003), Tubuai Is (Rapa, Tubuai, Raivavae, Penhallurick 2003). Vis Niue.
F: Cook Is (Aitutaki: 11 seen Sep, Child 1981). Solomon Is (Santa Isabel: common Garanga R, Kratter et al 2001; Florida Is:L Mana I, Talbot).
A. s. superciliosa Res NZ 500,000 inds (NI, SI, Stewart I), Chatham Is, Snares Is (replaced by hybrids and Mallards by 2000; Miskelly et al 2001), Auckland Is, Antipodes Is, Campbell I, Macquarie I.
A. s. subsp? Res Kermadec Is, Lord Howe I (Hutton 1991). Cas Norfolk I.
F: Norfolk I (2 at Kingston were the only pure birds seen, Duranti; 3 Chapel Swamp May, R. Clarke).
A. zonorhyncha Chinese Spot-billed Duck
Livezey (1991) considers zonorhyncha specifically distinct from A. poecilorhyncha Indian Spot-billed Duck.
Acc Ogasawara Is (Mukojima).
A. discors Blue-winged Teal
This species and the next 4 comprise the "Blue-winged ducks"; A. querquedula Garganey may be closer to A. crecca and A. carolinensis than to A. discors and A. cyanoptera (Livezey 1991), and is placed there in this list.
Vis Oct-Apr (most) Galapagos Is, Oct-Mar (most) Hawaiian Is (Pratt 2002). Acc Guadalupe I, Revillagigedo Is, Clipperton I.
F: Hawaiian Is (Kauai: 4 at Hanalei NWR Mar, Lindsay).
A. cyanoptera Cinnamon Teal
Cas Oct-Apr Hawaiian Is. Acc Guadalupe I, Clipperton I.
A. clypeata Northern Shoveler
Vis Oct-Apr Mariana Is, Caroline Is (Pohnpei, Kosrae), Wake I, Marshall Is, Hawaiian Is, Kiribati. Cas Mar-Aug NZ (NI,SI), Tuamotu Is. Acc Ogasawara Is (Mukojima), Guadalupe I, Clipperton I.
A. rhynchotis Australasian Shoveler
A. r. variegata Res NZ 100,000-150,000 inds (NI, SI; cas Stewart I), Auckland Is. Extirpated Chatham Is (OSNZ 1990). Acc May Snares Is (Miskelly et al 2001).
A. r. subsp? Acc New Caledonia (from NZ? Doughty 1999).
A. chlorotis Brown Teal
This species and the next 5, the "Australasian Teal", were discussed by Kennedy and Spencer (2000), who suggested that A. gracilis and A. castanea are sister species sharing a common ancestor with the NZ species, the latter occupying the NZ region prior to divergence of castanea and gracilis. Analysis of genetic variation supports specific status of this and the next 2 species (Daugherty et al 1999; Kennedy and Spencer 2000).
Res NZ (Great Barrier I 700 inds, NI 300 inds including a few on Little Barrier I and Great Mercury I, SI <50 inds, extirpated Stewart I. Small reint populations Kapiti I, Manawatu-Horowhenua area, Tiritiri Matangi I. About 200 in captivity). Acc New Caledonia.
A. aucklandica Auckland Island Teal
Res Auckland Is 2000 inds.
A. nesiotis Campbell Island Teal
Res Campbell Is (Dent I) 100+ inds; of total population, about 80 in captivity and 30 on Dent I. Int NZ (SI: Codfish I, where currently breeding).
A. nov. sp. Macquarie Island Teal
Extinct. Res formerly Macquarie I (Holdaway et al 2001).
A. gracilis Grey Teal
Formerly considered part of A. gibberifrons, but see Christidis and Boles (1994).
A. g. remissa Extinct. Res formerly Solomon Is (Rennell).
A. g. gracilis Res NZ 50,000 inds. Cas Vanuatu, New Caledonia? Acc May and Aug Lord Howe I, Nov Snares Is, Oct (R. Clarke) and Apr Macquarie I.
A. g. mathewsi Res? New Caledonia.
A. g. subsp? Res Solomon Is (Rennell: small population w end L Tenggano, Doughty 1999).
A. castanea Chestnut Teal
Cas Lord Howe I, NZ (NI, SI).
A. acuta Northern Pintail
Baker (1951) indicated that winter visitors to Micronesia were from Asia, and belonged to the subspecies A. a. acuta, whereas the North American subspecies A. a. tzitzihoa, along with other American species, had been noted in the Marshall Is Oct 1899 and May 1900; the latter subsp occurs regularly in the Hawaiian Is in winter. These subspecies are not currently recognized, however. Palmer (1976) cites several banding recs indicating movement between North America and east Asia.
Vis mostly Oct-Apr Hawaiian Is, Wake I, Marshall Is, Mariana Is, Palau, Caroline Is (Truk). Cas Iwo Is, Kiribati (Line Is), Tonga, Cook Is (Penrhyn Nov, banded California, Holyoak 1980), Society Is, Marquesas Is. Acc Solomon Is (Bougainville), Guadalupe I, Clipperton I.
F: Palau (Peleliu: 13 on small pool north end, Talbot).
A. bahamensis White-cheeked Pintail
A. b. galapagensis Res Galapagos Is 2000 prs (Penhallurick 2003).
F: Galapagos Is (130 at 3 locations, Puerto Villamil on Isabela, Rabida I, and Lago Junco on Santa Cruz, Chartier).
A. crecca Common Teal
This species and the next 3 comprise a monophyletic clade (Livezey 1991).
Vis Oct-Mar Mariana Is, Palau, Marshall Is, Kiribati (Line Is). Cas Ogasawara Is, Iwo Is. Acc Hawaiian Is (Midway I, Oahu).
A. carolinensis Green-winged Teal
Vis Oct-Mar Hawaiian Is. Acc Marshall Is (Jaluit; Baker 1951).
A. formosa Baikal Teal
Acc Ogasawara Is (Chichijima), Hawaiian Is (Dec Kauai).
A. querquedula Garganey
Livezey (1991) considered this species to be closest to the "green-winged teal", including A. formosa
Vis Palau, Mariana Is (Apr Tinian). Cas Ogasawara Is (winter Chichijima), Hawaiian Is. Hypo Wake I (Pyle and Engbring 1985).
Aythya ferina Common Pochard
Cas Mariana Is (Guam). Acc Hawaiian Is (Midway Is).
A. valisineria Canvasback
Cas Hawaiian Is, Oct-May Marshall Is. Acc Clipperton I.
A. americana Redhead
Cas Oct-Apr Hawaiian Is.
A. collaris Ring-necked Duck
Cas Oct-Apr Hawaiian Is. Acc Clipperton I.
A. australis Hardhead
Res Vanuatu (Banks Is). Irruptive (breeds?) Solomon Is, New Caledonia. Extirpated NZ. Cas Norfolk I, NZ (Apr-May and Oct NI, SI). Acc Aug-Sep Snares Is (Miskelly et al 2001).
A. fuligula Tufted Duck
Vis Oct-Apr Ogasawara Is, Palau, Caroline Is (Yap), Mariana Is. Cas Marshall Is, Hawaiian Is (Nov Midway Is).
F: Palau (Peleliu: 8 on small pool n end, Dec, Talbot). Caroline Is (Yap: 9 on main reservoir, Feb, S. Smith).
A. novaeseelandiae New Zealand Scaup
Res 20,000 inds NZ (NI, SI).
A. marila Greater Scaup
A. m. mariloides Cas Ogasawara Is, Mariana Is, Caroline Is (Yap, Watson), Hawaiian Is.
A. affinis Lesser Scaup
Vis Oct-Apr Hawaiian Is. Acc Clipperton I.
F: Hawaiian Is (Hawaii: Wailoa SP Mar, Lindsay).
Histrionicus histrionicus Harlequin Duck
Cas Hawaiian Is (Nov-Dec Midway I, Laysan I, Oahu).
Clangula hyemalis Long-tailed Duck
Acc Hawaiian Is (Midway I, Oahu).
Melanitta nigra Black Scoter
Acc Hawaiian Is (Midway I).
M. perspicillata Surf Scoter
Acc Hawaiian Is (Oahu).
Bucephala albeola Bufflehead
Cas Oct-Apr Hawaiian Is.
F: Hawaiian Is (Kauai: 2 at Hanalei NWR Mar, Lindsay).
B. clangula Common Goldeneye
Acc Hawaiian Is (Scott et al 2001).
B. islandica Barrow's Goldeneye
Acc Hawaiian Is (Jan-Feb Kauai, Pyle 2002).
Lophodytes cucullatus Hooded Merganser
Cas Hawaiian Is.
Mergus serrator Red-breasted Merganser
Cas Hawaiian Is. Acc Ogasawara Is (Chichijima), Guadalupe I.
M. merganser Common Merganser
Cas Hawaiian Is.
M. australis Auckland Island Merganser
Extinct. Res formerly Auckland Is.
Oxyura jamaicensis Ruddy Duck
The continental N. American subspecies rubida is now generally synonymized with West Indian jamaicensis; however more study is needed (see Palmer 1976).
O. j. jamaicensis (=rubida) Cas Hawaiian Is.


Pandion halieaetus Osprey
P. h. haliaetus Cas Oct-Mar Ogasawara Is, Iwo Is, Palau (Engbring 1988), Mariana Is (Guam). No evidence for suggested breeding Palau (Pyle and Engbring 1985). Extirp Mariana Is (Guam, Baker 1951).
F: Palau (Peleliu: 2 seen Dec, Talbot).
P. h. melvillensis Res Solomon Is.
F: Solomon Is (Guadalcanal; Rennell: 3 L Tenggano; Kolombangara, Richards; widespread, Hornbuckle; Florida Is: Mana I, Talbot).
P. h. microhaliaetus Res New Caledonia.
F: New Caledonia (2 on Yate-Goro road, Fairbank; 2 near Mamie Oct, T. Clarke).
P. h. carolinensis Vis Hawaiian Is, Jun-Jan Galapagos Is, Sep-Apr Guadalupe I, Revillagigedo Is, Clipperton I.


Aviceda subcristata Pacific Baza
A. s. proxima Res Solomon Is (Buka, Bougainville, Shortland Is, New Georgia Is).
A. s. robusta Res Solomon Is (Choiseul, Santa Isabel).
A. s. gurneyi Res Solomon Is (where proxima, robusta absent; Rennell?).
F: Solomon Is (Ghizo: 4 near Gizo, Richards); Santa Isabel: 2, Hornbuckle).
Elanus axillaris (=notatus) Black-shouldered Kite
Acc Lord Howe I (Hutton 1991).
Milvus migrans Black Kite
Cas Palau, NZ (NI, SI, poss only 1-2 birds account for the several sightings). Acc Mariana Is (Saipan, Micronesica 31:283), Hawaiian Is (Scott et al 2001).
F: Palau (Angaur: seen Dec, de Vries).
Haliastur sphenurus Whistling Kite
Res New Caledonia.
F: New Caledonia (PTRB, Quested; 6 at PTRB, 1 Yate-Goro Road, Fairbank; common between Tontouta and La Foa, T. Clarke).
H. indus Brahminy Kite
H. i. flavirostris Res Solomon Is. Acc Vanuatu.
F: Solomon Is (fairly common, seen all islands except Rennell, Richards).
H. i. subsp? Acc Palau.
Haliaeetus leucogaster White-bellied Fish-Eagle
Acc New Caledonia (immature Lac du Yate Oct 1999; new NC rec? T. Clarke).
H. sanfordi Solomon Fish-Eagle
Res Solomon Is (except Rennell, Doughty et al 1999).
F: Solomon Is (Makira: over Hauta, Richards; Santa Isabel: seen daily Garanga R, Kratter et al 2001; Buka: Arawa area, Gregory, Anderson; Kolombangara, Ghizo, Ranongga, Hornbuckle; Florida Is: Mana I, Talbot).
H. albicilla White-tailed Eagle
Acc Ogasawara Is (Chichijima).
H. pelagicus Steller's Sea-Eagle
H. p. subsp? Cas w Hawaiian Is (Kure I, Midway I, French Frigate Shoals). Acc s Izu Is (Torishima).
Circus approximans Swamp Harrier
Two subspecies have been recognized, gouldi of NZ and approximans of the sw Pacific (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001), but mensural differences have been considered insignificant (HANZAB). Res Vanuatu, New Caledonia, Loyalty Is, Fiji, Tonga, NZ, Chatham Is, Kermadec Is. Int Society Is. Vis Lord Howe I (Hutton 1991). Cas Solomon Is (Guadalcanal, Hornbuckle; Three Sisters Is), Apr-Dec Norfolk I, Snares Is, Campbell I, Auckland Is, Jun-Oct Macquarie I.
F: New Caledonia (2 Mt Koghi Dec, Gregory).
C. cyaneus Northern Harrier
This and the next species are sometimes treated as subspecies of C. cyaneus, but considered specifically distinct by Ferguson-Lees and Christie (2001).
Cas Hawaiian Is.
C. cyaneus Hen Harrier
Acc Ogasawara Is (Chichijima).
C. aeruginosus Marsh Harrier
Subspecies spilonotus sometimes treated as separate species Eastern Marsh Harrier, but Ferguson-Lees and Christie (2001) note interbreeding of C.a. spilonotus and C. a. aeruginosus where ranges meet.
C. a. spilonotus Acc Ogasawara Is (Chichijima).
Accipiter soloensis Chinese Goshawk
Vis Nov-Mar Mariana Is, Caroline Is (Yap), Palau. Acc Hawaiian Is (Scott et al 2001).
A. pulchellus Rufous-breasted Goshawk
Some authors consider conspecific with A. novaehollandiae Grey Goshawk (Australia) and/or A. hiogaster Variable (Varied) Goshawk (PNG), but see Ferguson-Lees and Christie (2001).
A. p. pulchellus Res Solomon Is (Guadalcanal).
F: Solomon Is (Guadalcanal: 3, Richards).
A. p. malaitae Res Solomon Is (Malaita).
A. p. bougainvillei Res Solomon Is (Buka, Bougainville, Shortland Is: Shortland and Fauro, Treasury Is: Mono).
A. p. rufoschistaceus Res Solomon Is (Santa Isabel, Choiseul, Florida Is).
F: Solomon Is (Santa Isabel, Hornbuckle).
A. p. rubianae Res Solomon Is (New Georgia Is except Nggatokae).
F: Solomon Is (Vella Lavella, Hornbuckle; Uepi, Talbot).
A. novaehollandiae Grey Goshawk
Acc Lord Howe I (HANZAB).
A. fasciatus Brown (Australian) Goshawk
A. f. fasciatus Res Solomon Is (Rennell, Bellona).
F: Solomon Is (Rennell: several on road to L Tenggano, Richards).
A. f. vigilax Res Vanuatu, New Caledonia, Loyalty Is. Acc (this subsp?) Sep Norfolk I. Extirp (this sp?) Norfolk I (Worthy and Holdaway 2002).
F: New Caledonia (one between Tountouta and La Foa Oct-Nov, T. Clarke); Loyalty Is (Lifou, T. Clarke).
A. albogularis Pied Goshawk
A. a. woodfordi Res Solomon Is (Buka, Bougainville, Shortland Is incl Fauro, Treasury Is (Mono), Guadalcanal, Malaita, Ulawa I, Choiseul, Santa Isabel (? see A. imitator, below), Florida Is, Doughty et al 1999, Mayr and Diamond 2001).
F: Solomon Is (Buka: quite common, Anderson; Guadalcanal: Mt Austen, Hornbuckle; Honiara, Talbot).
A. a. gilvus Res Solomon Is (New Georgia Is except Nggatokae).
F: Solomon Is (Kolombangara, Ghizo, Richards, Hornbuckle); Ranongga, Hornbuckle).
A. a. albogularis Res Solomon Is (Makira, Ugi Is, Santa Ana, Santa Catalina).
F: Solomon Is (Makira: 4, Richards; 2, Hornbuckle).
A. a. sharpei Res Solomon Is (Santa Cruz Is: Utupua, Vanikoro).
A. haplochrous White-bellied Goshawk
Res New Caledonia.
F: New Caledonia (Mt Koghi, Quested; 2 PTRB, 1 Yate-Goro road, Fairbank; several Oct-Nov, T. Clarke; "a scarce and difficult endemic", Gregory).
A. rufitorques Fiji Goshawk
Res Fiji.
F: Fiji (Kadavu, Lonsdale; Taveuni: up to 3 daily, Sargeant 1992; Viti Levu: 2 Nausori Highlands, Sargeant 1992).
A. imitator Imitator Sparrowhawk
Res Solomon Is (Choiseul, Santa Isabel; acc Bougainville, ?Makira.)
May be more numerous on Isabel than prev thought, as field separation from A. albogularis is difficult; dark specs of Accipiter from Isabel have been previously assigned to A. albogularis, but all dark and pied specs in AMNH are in fact A. imitator (Kratter et al 2001).
F: Solomon Is (Bougainville: only 2 recs, Hadden 1981; Santa Isabel: Garanga R uncommon, Kratter et al 2001; very rare, Wheatley 1998; 2 thought albogularis, but specs indicate all on Isabel are imitator, Hornbuckle 1999; Choiseul: very rare, Wheatley 1998).
A. gularis Japanese Sparrowhawk
Sometimes considered conspecific with A. virgatus Besra Sparrowhawk.
A. g. gularis Vis Mariana Is (Oct Guam), Palau? Cas s Izu Is, Ogasawara Is, Iwo Is.
A. striatus Sharp-shinned Hawk
A. s. subsp? Acc Revillagigedo Is.
A. gentilis Northern Goshawk
A. g. fujiyamae Vis Oct-Mar Ogasawara Is (Hahajima, Nishinoshima).
A. meyerianus Meyer's Goshawk
Res Solomon Is (?Buka, Kolombangara, Vella Lavella, Nggatokae, Guadalcanal, Doughty et al 1999, Mayr and Diamond 2001, Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001).
Butaster indicus Grey-faced Buzzard
Cas s Izu Is (Apr Torishima), Iwo Is (Kitaiwojima).
Buteo galapagoensis Galapagos Hawk
Res 130 prs in 1970s, but currently 700-900 inds (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001) Galapagos Is (Santa Cruz few, Santiago, Isabela, Santa Fe, Espanola, Fernandina). Extirpated Floreana, San Cristobal, Seymour, Daphne, Baltra. Unrecorded Genovesa, Wenman, Culpepper.
F: Galapagos Is (Rabida; Santiago: nest; Fernandina and Isabela a few; one Espanola, one highlands Santa Cruz, where rare, Chartier).
B. exsul Juan Fernandez Hawk
Often considered conspecific with B. polyosoma Red-backed Hawk and/or B. poecilochrous Gurney's Hawk, but plumage differences and isolation suggest otherwise (Ferguson-Lees and Christie (2001).
Res Juan Fernandez Is (Mas Afuera I; int Isla Robinson Crusoe (=Mas Atierra).
B. solitarius Io (Hawaiian Hawk)
Res 1160-2700 inds (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001) Hawaiian Is (Hawaii; cas Kauai, Maui, Oahu).
F: Hawaiian Is (Hawaii: anywhere, but try Stainback Hiway, Pratt 1993).
B. jamaicensis Red-tailed Hawk
B. j. socorroensis Res Revillagigedos Is (Socorro I 15-20 prs).
B. j. subsp? Extirpated Guadalupe I (Howell and Webb 1995).
B. buteo Common Buzzard
B. b. toyoshimai Res southern Izu Is (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001), Ogasawara Is (Chichijima, Hahajima, smaller is). Vis Mariana Is (Pyle and Engbring 1985). Hypo Palau (Pyle and Engbring 1985).
B. lagopus Rough-legged Hawk
B. l. subsp? Cas Hawaiian Is (Scott et al 2001; 2 birds Oct-Nov Midway I, Kahoolawe, N. Am. Birds 56:121).
Aquila chrysaetos Golden Eagle
A. c. subsp? Acc Hawaiian Is (Kauai).