The genera Bulweria and Pseudobulweria are
considered sufficiently differentiated from Pterodroma not to be included
within the latter (Bretagnolle et al 1998).
Breeds Ogasawara Is, Iwo Is, Marshall Is (Pyle and Engbring 1985), Johnston I, Hawaiian Is 400,000 inds, Kiribati (Phoenix Is), Marquesas Is. Eggs variable; Jun w Hawaiian Is, Apr-Sep Marquesas Is. At
sea c Pacific between 30N and 20S; Hawaiian Is breeders to se Sep-Mar, Ogasawara
Is and Iwo Is breeders also move se Sep-Apr, but poss also to Indian Ocean. Cas
sw Pacific incl Vanuatu, New Caledonia, Solomon Is (Penhallurick 2003). Acc NZ (Jan NI), off California. Hypo Caroline Is (Kosrae, Pohnpei, Pyle and Engbring 1985).
F: Ogasawara Is (42 on ferry Chichijima-Hahajima 5-6 Jun, Danzenbaker); Hawaiian Is (Oahu, Kauai: boat trips, frequent, D.Pratt 1993); 182 in Hawaiian Is EEZ Aug-Nov, M. Force; Kauai: Lehua Rock Apr, Melgar; Hawaii: boat trip Apr "lots", T. Pratt). Marshall Is (Feb, Lonsdale).
B. fallax Jouanin's Petrel
Hawaiian Is (Lisianski, Pyle 2002).
Pseudobulweria becki Beck's Petrel
Sometimes considered subspecies of P. rostrata.
Is? At sea in vicinity: Bismarck Arch and n of Rendova, Solomon Is; about 4
recs. Baker (1951) suggested a specimen collected Caroline Is, attributed to
P. rostrata, could be becki.
P. rostrata Tahiti
P. r. rostrata Breeds Society Is (Tahiti, Moorea), Marquesas Is (Hiva Oa,
Tahuata, Nuku Hiva), Samoa (Tau, Olosega?), Cook Is (Rarotonga, Holyoak 1980), Gambier Is (Mangareva, Akamaru, Manui 12-16 prs, Thibault and Bretagnolle 1999), Fiji
(Gau, Taveuni; Watling 2001, Plant et al 1989). Eggs Oct; Jul-Oct Society Is (Tahiti, Thibault et al 1975). At sea between 30S and
7N, n to Caroline Is (Truk: Pyle and Engbring 1985, Baker 1951), e to Hawaiian Is Nov (Spear et al 1999), Mexico, incl Revillagigedo Is and Clipperton I, and Peru in tropical Pacific. Acc Jun
-Aug NZ; Oct, Feb, May Norfolk I.
F: one at sea Norfolk I May (R. Clarke
P. r. trouessarti Breeds New Caledonia. Cas Solomon Is,
Vanuatu. Eggs Oct.
P. macgillivrayi MacGillivray's (Fiji) Petrel
One specimen, a fledgling Oct 1855, Fiji (Gau), but recent sightings
of dark petrels in area suggest continuing presence (Wheatley 1998); since 1985
6 presumed juvs have landed on roofs of houses on Gau (Watling 2001).
Apr 1984, spotlighted Gau, 4-day boat search no luck (Watling and Lewanavanua
Procellaria aequinoctialis White-chinned Petrel
P. a. aequinoctialis Breeds 10,000-50,000 prs Auckland Is, Campbell
I, Antipodes Is 100,000 prs (Tennyson et al 2002). Eggs Nov-Dec. At sea n to 30S, 6S off S. America.
parkinsoni Black Petrel
Breeds NZ (NI: Little Barrier I 100 prs, Great
Barrier I 1000 prs). Eggs Nov-Jan. At sea Mar-Nov to ec Pacific between
Guatemala (14N) and Peru (5S), incl Galapagos Is. Apparent returning birds occur Oct-Nov Tasman Sea off e Australia (Palliser).
westlandica Westland Petrel
Breeds NZ (SI: 20,000 inds). Eggs May. At sea
sw Pacific between 35S and 45S, in breeding season around NZ and w to Australia,
Dec-Feb e of NZ at about 40S, to Humboldt Current where n to about 20S (Brinkley
et al 2000).
P. cinerea Grey Petrel
Breeds Campbell I 10,000-50,000 prs, Antipodes Is 10,000-50,000 prs (Tennyson et al 2002), Macquarie I 4 prs. Eggs Mar-Apr. At sea
Nov-May n to 44S, May-Sep to 25S, 6S off S. America. Occ Tasman Sea.
Calonectris diomedea Cory's Shearwater
borealis Acc NZ (Jan NI).
C. leucomelas Streaked
Breeds Ogasawara Is. Eggs May-Jun. At sea Feb-Oct vicinity and n to n Japan, s to Palau, Caroline Is (Truk, Yap), Mariana Is incl Guam (Harrison 1983, Pyle and Engbring 1985); Nov-Feb sw Pacific, incl Solomon Is, n Tasman Sea (Harrison 1983). Cas Oct ne Pacific. Acc Hawaiian Is.
Puffinus pacificus Wedge-tailed
Two subspecies were proposed by Murphy (1951), although most
current authors consider the species monotypic (Harrison 1983, HANZAB, Clements 2000), or include cuneatus in chlororhynchus as followed herein. P. p. pacificus of Murphy is entirely dark-plumaged, while P. p. cuneatus of Murphy is predominantly white-breasted. Pale birds most common northerly (Hawaiian Is, Ogasawara Is); only dark birds breed Kermadec Is, Norfolk I, Lord Howe I (HANZAB). Pale birds outnumber dark birds 100-200+:1 within 150 mi e of Hawaiian Is in Aug, dark birds predominate further e (Rowlett); poss non-breeders from range of pacificus- see below.
P. p. pacificus Breeds
Lord Howe I (Hutton 1991), Kermadec Is, Norfolk I, Fiji, Wallis and Futuna (Penhallurick 2003), Tonga, ?Samoa, Niue (Watling 2001,
Powlesland et al 2000). Eggs Dec. At sea vicinity Oct-May; Jun-Sep n of equator
to 30N in se North Pacific (Powlesland and Pickard 1992). Cas NZ (mostly Nov-Apr NI), Cook Is (this subsp? Aug-Sep, Holyoak 1980).
F: Lord Howe I (seen Dec, Quested; "teeming" Little I area Apr, Bielewicz; easily seen after dark returning to burrows, Walker). Norfolk I (present Oct-May, Hermes; good numbers with terns and noddies, Duranti; common May, R. Clarke).
P. p. chlororhynchus (incl cuneatus) Breeds New Caledonia, Vanuatu, Mariana Is except Guam (Pyle and Engbring 1985), Ogasawara Is (? Brazil 1991), Iwo Is, Caroline Is (Yap, Truk, Pohnpei, Kosrae, Pratt 1987), Marshall Is (Baker 1951), Johnston I, Kiribati (Phoenix Is, Line Is, Pratt 1987), Hawaiian Is 1,800,000 inds incl 150,000 prs, Society Is, Marquesas Is, Tuamotu Is, Tubuai Is, Gambier Is 60-85 prs, Pitcairn Is (Henderson I), Easter I (Penhallurick 2003), and Revillagigedo Is San Benedicto). Eggs variable by location: Dec Vanuatu, Jun-Jul Hawaiian Is. Generally sedentary, in tropical Pacific between 30N and
35S. Cas year round Palau (breeds? Pyle and Engbring 1985), Solomon Is, Clipperton I, Galapagos Is.
F: New Caledonia (common late pm
offshore, Dec Isle of Pines, Gregory; common se coast Gr Terre near Yate
Nov-Dec, T. Clarke); Solomon Is (2 Ghizo-Kolombangara, Hornbuckle 1999); Hawaiian Is (Midway Is: thousands Apr Sand I, Eastern I, Vandenberg); Kauai: breeds Kilauea Pt, active daytime, Pratt 1993; 18,552 in Hawaiian Is EEZ Aug-Nov, M. Force).
bulleri Buller's Shearwater
Breeds NZ (NI: Poor Knights Is 2,500,000
inds). Eggs Nov. At sea Apr-Oct to northern Pacific, generally north of Hawaiian Is, but to 35S off S. America, incl Clipperton I and Galapagos Is; exact route unknown, but present off Japan Jun-Jul and Sep-Nov (Brazil 1991) and thought to pass east of Tonga both outward and return (Watling 2001), thus prob general northward movement with drift of at least part of the population to east prior to return. Cas Lord Howe I (Hutton 1991). Cas Hawaiian Is (Apr, Pyle 2002; Jun, Shirihai; 6 in Hawaiian Is EEZ during period Aug-Nov, M. Force).
Generally considered monotypic by current authors eg HANZAB; the subspecific name hullianus has been used for breeding populations listed below.
Breeds Lord Howe I
10,000-20,000 prs, Norfolk I (Moore 1999), NZ (islands off ne NI and in Cook Strait
50,000-100,000 prs). Eggs Nov-Dec. At sea Apr-Oct to nw Pacific, but many
(non-breeders?) to n and e Pacific, Oct-Jan Galapagos Is (Castro and Phillips
1996). Generally absent c Pacific, although spec Samoa "early" 2000 (Watling
2001), cas Hawaiian Is (Pyle 2002; 2 birds Sep- Mike Force). Acc Revillagigedo Is.
F: one off Music Valley, Norfolk I May
(R. Clarke). Lord Howe I (easily seen offshore following boats Apr, Walker).
P. creatopus Pink-footed Shearwater
considered conspecific with P. carneipes Flesh-footed Shearwater.
Breeds Juan Fernandez Is (Isla Robinson Crusoe =Mas Atierra a few thousand prs, Santa Clara 3,000
prs). Eggs? At sea Apr-Nov to ne Pacific mostly n of 10N incl Clipperton I and
Revillagigedo Is. Cas Oct-Dec Hawaiian Is, Marshall Is (Pyle and Engbring 1985), Kiribati (Line Is), NZ (Dec, Jan and Jun SI).
2 from Salinas, Guayas, May (Ottesen).
P. gravis Great
Acc Jan-Feb off Australia and Feb off California (Roberson 1980).
P. griseus Sooty Shearwater
Breeds NZ (total pop 20,000,000, mostly islands off Stewart I), Macquarie I 3500 prs, Campbell I, Antipodes Is 1000 prs (Tennyson et al 2002),
Chatham Is, Snares Is 2,750,000 prs, Auckland Is. Eggs Nov-Dec. At sea
Mar-Dec in generally clockwise movement through northern Pacific and
southwestward to breeding grounds (Spear and Ainley 1999); movement through tropics rapid. Chilean breeders move
northwestward through c Pacific Apr-Sep to northern Pacific (species reg migrant Hawaiian Is, Marshall Is, common off
Japan Mar-Jul; Brazil 1991), returning Oct-Dec by same route, and some
(immatures?) from NZ area eastward Oct-Mar to Humboldt Current, joining Chilean
breeders Apr-Sep but returning with NZ breeders to natal areas (Spear and Ainley
1999). Numerous east of Tonga May and recorded Marquesas Is May-Jun (Chester et al 1998), but few in southerly movement (Watling
2001); Cook Is only rec 18 birds flying southwest Sep (Holyoak 1980). Cas Lord Howe I (Hutton 1991). Acc New Caledonia (Shirihai 2002).
F: c10 off Kauai Apr (Shaw); 336 in Hawaiian Is EEZ Aug-Nov (M. Force).
At sea n Pacific Apr-Sep, clockwise movement,
initially to n Pacific to the west of Fiji (Watling 2001) and between Hawaiian Is (where cas, but 127 NM south-southwest of Kure Atoll 8-10,000 birds per day for about 2 to 3 days mid-Sep; Mike Force) and Mariana Is (Pyle and Engbring 1985) incl Lord Howe I, Norfolk I, Solomon Is, New Caledonia, Vanuatu, Caroline Is (Pohnpei), Marshall Is, Japan Apr-Jul, but
some until Nov), off west coast N. America Nov-Feb and e to Tuamotu Arch;
abundant Fiji area Sep-Nov, off w NZ Nov-May. Cas Macquarie I, where large numbers, incl 3764 on 20 Feb, on several days heading south Feb and 580 in late Mar at 44-46S (R. Clarke).
F: New Caledonia (300+ off Yate coast Nov-Dec, T. Clarke); Hawaiian Is (Kauai: Apr boat (2) Lehua Rock, Melgar; Apr boat off Oahu, Nikas).
P. nativitatis Christmas
Breeds Hawaiian Is (14,000 inds e to Oahu and Molokai; most Laysan 1500-2000 prs and Lisianski
400-600 prs), Marshall Is (Pyle and Engbring 1985), Johnston I, Kiribati (Phoenix Is 10,000-100,000 prs, Line Is 1000-10,000 prs), ?Samoa (Tau; questioned by Watling 2001; Tutuila, Manua, Penhallurick 2003), Marquesas Is, Gambier Is 450-850 prs, Tubuai Is, Pitcairn Is (Henderson I, Ducie I, Oeno I, Pitcairn I), Easter I, Sala-y-Gomez I 1,000 inds. Eggs Apr-Jul, Jul-Dec Marquesas Is (Chester et al 1998. At sea tropical Pacific
generally near breeding locations, but extending west to Mariana Is, Wake I, Caroline Is (Kosrae, Pyle and Engbring 1985), southwest to Fiji, Tuvalu
(Watling 2001), and ne to Mexico and C. America. Cas NZ (Feb NI), Jul Ogasawara
F: Tuvalu (one seen May Funafuti, Child 1982); Hawaiian Is (Midway Is: Eastern I, 1 seen under bush, Vandenberg; Oahu: can be seen with patience in spring late in day off Koko Head or Laie Pt, Pratt 1993; Apr boat, Nikas); 9 sightings Hawaiian Is EEZ Aug-Nov, M. Force).
P. puffinus Manx Shearwater
Cas NZ (immatures Jan, Jun); also Jun-Feb w coast N America (Roberson 1980, 1990), increasing sightings recent years.
newelli Newell's Shearwater
Some authors consider this and the next species conspecific.
Breeds Hawaiian Is (4,000-6,000 prs Kauai; extirp Maui, Molokai). Eggs May-Jun. At sea in vicinity Apr-Oct incl Hawaii and Oahu, but absent rest of
year, at least some e to California. Cas Mariana Is. Acc NZ Nov, Norfolk I Dec
(Moore 1999), Samoa (Jan Tutuila, Sep).
F: Hawaiian Is: seen 900 km w of Kauai
Feb (Lonsdale); 3-4 Apr Kauai-Lehua Rock (Melgar); up to 5 on fall boat trips Kauai (Kuhn); prob important feeding area
Kauai-Kaula-Niihau (Harrison 1990).
P. auricularis Townsend's
Breeds Revillagigedo Is (Clarion few, Socorro 1,000 prs, San
Benedicto few). Eggs Apr-May. At sea in vicinity, but may disperse s to 8N near
P. opisthomelas Black-vented Shearwater
Guadalupe I 2500 prs. Eggs Feb-Mar. At sea e Pacific, mostly between 35N and
P. gavia Fluttering Shearwater
Breeds NZ (100,000-1,000,000 prs islands off NI). Breeding New Caledonia and Vanuatu (Banks Is) unsubstantiated (Bregulla 1992). Eggs Sep-Oct At sea breeding season
around NZ (NI and Marlborough Sounds), dispersing Jan-Oct throughout NZ seas
and to Tasman Sea. Cas Lord Howe I (Hutton 1991), New Caledonia, Vanuatu, Solomon Is (Penhallurick 2003).
Breeds NZ (SI: Kaikoura Mts 160,000 prs). Eggs Oct-Nov. At
sea vicinity and (immatures) Tasman Sea, most off Australia Sep-Feb (Penhallurick 2003). Cas Lord Howe I (Hutton 1991).
P. lherminieri Audubon's Shearwater
This and the following 2 species sometimes considered
conspecific. Some authors consider P. lherminieri and P. assimilis
conspecific also. Scofield (pers. comm. Angus Wilson) observed that "The only real difference between the Ascension bird [see Angus Wilson's website] and the Kermadec birds is the tail length and this reflects an overall trend for longer tails in the more "Audubon's"-influenced Little Shearwaters. One could argue that what we have here are a subantarctic species, the true Little (as exemplified by elegans) and a true Audubon's (as exemplified by l. lherminieri) that have a lot of intermediate "hybrid" populations. I suspect that DNA work will make many of the more northern Little Shearwaters into blue-footed Audubon's."
P. l. dichrous (incl polynesiae Baker 1951)
Breeds Palau, ?Mariana Is, Caroline Is (?Yap, Truk, Pohnpei, Kosrae), Kiribati (Phoenix Is), ?Fiji (no currently known
sites-Watling 2001), Wallis and Futuna (Penhallurick 2003), Tonga (Niuafoou), Samoa (Tutuila, Tau, ?Savaii, ?Upolu, ?Manua), Tuamotu Is, Gambier Is 660-1085 prs, Marquesas Is. Eggs variable by location;
breeds year round Gambier Is (Thibault and Bretagnolle 1999), Jul-Dec Marquesas Is (Chester et al 1998). At sea near
breeding locations; vis Kiribati (Line Is), Tuvalu, Society Is (Tahiti, Moorea). Cas (this subsp?) Nauru (Penhallurick 2003), Cook Is (Jul-Aug, Holyoak 1980).
F: Kiribati (3 seen Jun-Jul, Child 1982); Palau (most numerous off Ngeruktabl at dusk and abund open ocean outside reef, Engbring 1988).
gunax Breeds Vanuatu (Banks Is), ?New Caledonia (Penhallurick 2003). Eggs Sep-Oct? At sea in vicinity.
l. subalaris Breeds Galapagos Is. Eggs year round. At sea in vicinity. Acc
F: Galapagos Is (1100 seen between islands Jun-Jul, Chartier).
bannermani Bannerman's Shearwater
Breeds Ogasawara Is, Iwo Is. Eggs?
At sea near breeding locations.
P. heinrothi Heinroth's
Breeds Solomon Is (Bougainville). Eggs Jun? At sea in vicinity, incl Solomon Is (Buka, Gizo).
F: Flock 250
betw Buka and Kieta (Enticott and Tipling 1997). Adult grounded Pangunu Jul, juv
found mid-Aug (Hadden 1981); recorded off Kolombangara, where may breed
(Wheatley 1998). Seen New Georgia area (Moray Is) and Florida Is (Indispensible
Straight; Doughty). 2 between Gizo and Ranongga Jun (Hornbuckle 1999).
P. assimilis Little Shearwater
not all subspecies may be full species based on size, plumage differences, and
in the cases of kermadecensis and haurakiensis, differing feather
lice (Holdaway et al 2001). Southern form elegans has a dark face, while northern assimilis and kermadecensis are white-faced. Somewhat intermediate, but mostly white-faced is haurakiensis (see HANZAB). See comments under P. lherminieri, above. A specimen from the Marshall Is attributed to this species has been re-identified as P. longirostris Stejneger's Petrel (Pyle and Engbring 1985).
P. a. assimilis Breeds Norfolk I 100-1000
prs, Lord Howe I 4000 prs. Eggs Jun-Jul. At sea Apr-Oct in vicinity, cas to NZ (w NI).
F: Lord Howe I (seen Apr, Bielewicz; common winter, Quested; after dark Apr at burrows on cliff above Blinky Beach with Ian Hutton, Walker). Norfolk I (seen in nos 100+m offshore, 351 at sea May, R. Clarke).
kermadecensis Breeds Kermadec Is 100,000 prs (most Curtis I, few hundred prs Macauley I). Eggs Jun-Jul. At sea in
vicinity, s to NZ (n NI; fledglings wreck west coast NI Nov-Dec).
P. a. haurakiensis Breeds NZ (islands off ne NI
5000-10,000 prs, most Red Mercury >1000 prs). Eggs Jul-Aug. At sea in vicinity.
P. a. elegans
Breeds Chatham Is (Star Keys 100 prs; ?Little Mangere I), Antipodes Is 10,000-100,000 prs Tennyson et al 2002). Eggs Sep. At
sea in vicinity, incl NZ (e SI), Auckland Is and Bounty Is; poss e (non-breeders?)
May-Aug to Chile. Acc (this subsp?) Macquarie I (Tasmania PWS; 48-51S 2 dark-faced birds late Mar and 6 birds incl 4 dark-faced and 2 light-faced at 45-46S, R. Clarke), Hawaiian Is (Scott et al 2001, Pyle 2002).
myrtae Breeds Tubuai Is (Rapa). Eggs? At sea in vicinity, incl (this subsp?)
Marquesas Is (DuPont 1976).
O. o. exasperatus At sea breeding season Nov-Mar
n to 50S; May-Nov n to 30N in n Pacific incl Japan, e to Washington; movement Mar-May and
Nov-Dec, mostly in e, c, and w Pacific, unc NZ. Cas Apr-May Marshall Is (Huber 1971), Hawaiian Is (2 birds Sep n of Laysan I and Lisianski and 4 in Sep n Kauai, Mike Force), Vanuatu, New Caledonia, Solomon Is (Penhallurick 2003), May Fiji, Mar Tonga prob
this sp (Watling 2001).
F: Mar-May NZ (off eastern NI), Nov-Dec Chatham Rise
44S176.30E, 42.30S180W (Petyt 2001b).
O. lineata (=maorianus) New Zealand Storm-Petrel
Oliver (1930) followed Murphy (1924) in placing this species with Fregetta, although he later (1955), following Murphy (1952), reluctantly placed it in Oceanites. Oliver (1955) cited 3 specimens collected in NZ (SI: Banks Peninsula). Oliver (1930) included specimens taken at Samoa (Upolu) and in the Marquesas Is (Ua Pu) in this taxon, but more recent authors have attributed these specimens to F. grallaria. While it has been stated that the 3 NZ specimens cited by Oliver (1955) "probably show a rare form of individual variation" (see HANZAB), O. oceanicus exhibits little such variation elsewhere, as pointed out by Oliver (1955). Holdaway et al (2001) attributed skeletal items from three SI sources previously attributed to other species to this form.
Extinct? Formerly? bred NZ (NI,SI). An exciting recent development was the sighting of a bird off NZ (NI: Whitianga) which may be of this species; photographs are at http://homepages.paradise.net.nz/ eco-vist/stormpet.htm and discussion at http://www.wrybill-tours.com/ idproblems/stormpet.htm.
O. gracilis White-vented
O. g. galapagoensis Breeds ("many thousands")
Galapagos Is. Eggs? At sea in vicinity and poss off Peru and Chile.
near Rabida, Galapagos Is, Jun (Ottesen); 241 at sea Jun-Jul (Chartier).
g. gracilis Breeds? Eggs? At sea off Ecuador, Peru, Chile.
nereis Grey-backed Storm-Petrel
Breeds (total 10,000-50,000 prs) Macquarie
I 100 prs, Auckland Is, Antipodes Is "tens of thousands nesting prs" (Tennyson et al 2002), Chatham Is 10,000-12,000 inds. Eggs Sep-
Dec. At sea in vicinity, cas n to 35S NZ (SI, NI), Tasman Sea.
marina White-faced Storm-Petrel
P. m. dulciae At sea Apr-Sep
sw Pacific, poss between Fiji and Kermadec Is. Acc NZ (May NI), Sep (this subsp?) Samoa (Tutuila).
P. m. moariana Breeds NZ (islands off NI, SI, Stewart I), Auckland
Is, Chatham Is 100,000-1,000,000 prs. Eggs Oct-Dec. At sea Apr-Sep n to Equator
incl Tasman Sea and e to Galapagos Is and to 5N in e Pacific (Shirihai 2002; 1 banded Chatham Is recovered Humboldt
P. m. albiclunis Breeds Kermadec Is. Eggs? At sea in
Fregetta tropica Black-bellied Storm-Petrel
F. t. tropica Breeds Auckland Is 50,000-100,000 prs, Antipodes Is "tens of thousands of prs" (Tennyson et al 2002), ?Bounty Is (Shirihai 2002). Eggs Jan.
At sea May-Oct n to 15S, incl Solomon Is, Vanuatu, New Caledonia (Penhallurick 2003), and s Polynesia. Cas (this sp?) Samoa, Marquesas Is (Penhallurick 2003).
F. grallaria White-bellied Storm-Petrel
F. g. grallaria Breeds Lord Howe I 1000 prs, Kermadec Is 1000 prs. Eggs Jan-Mar.
At sea in vicinity, n to Coral Sea, c Pacific (Hutton 1991), Samoa (Upolu), Marquesas Is (Ua Pou, DuPont 1976); prob this sp n to Solomon Is, New Caledonia, Vanuatu, Fiji, Cook Is (Aug, Holyoak 1980). Acc Norfolk I May (at sea, 1st live rec? Clarke).
F: Lord Howe I (several near Ball's Pyramid Jan, Shimba; 10-12 on trip to Ball's Pyramid Apr, Walker)).
F. g. titan Breeds Tubuai Is
(Rapa 500 prs, Penhallurick 2003). Eggs? At sea in vicinity, incl Marquesas Is, Society Is.
segethi Breeds Juan Fernandez Is. Eggs Dec-Jan. At sea in vicinity, cas n to
Galapagos Is May- Aug.
Nesofregetta fuliginosa Polynesian
Breeds Vanuatu (extirp? Watling 2001), New Caledonia (Watling
2001), Fiji (duPont 1976; extirp? Watling 2001), Samoa (extirp? Watling 2001), Kiribati (Phoenix Is, Line Is), Tubuai Is (Rapa), Gambier Is 200-500 prs, Marquesas Is,
Sala-y-Gomez I. Eggs year round, but peaks Kiribati (Kiritimati Sep-Nov; Line Is Jan), Marquesas Is Jul-Dec (Chester et al 1998). At sea c Pacific between 25N and 30S, incl Cook Is (Aug, Holyoak 1980). Cas New Solomon Is (Penhallurick 2003).
F: Can be found
between New Caledonia and Loyalty Is (Lifou, T. Clarke).
At sea off California and Mexico, s to Ecuador. Cas
O. tethys Wedge-rumped (Galapagos)
O. t. tethys Breeds 200,000 inds Galapagos Is
(Genovesa, Pitt). Eggs mostly May-Jun. At sea n to Panama, cas to Mexico
(Guadalupe I, Revillagigedo Is), s to 20S.
F: A few near Floreana Jun
(Ottesen); 37 at sea Jun-Jul (Chartier).
O. t. kelsalli At sea n to
Panama and s to 20S. Acc California (Roberson 1980).
Breeds Hawaiian Is (Kauai, Maui, Hawaii), Galapagos Is 15,000 prs. Eggs
year round, but Galapagos Is has 2 differently-timed nesting populations, eggs
Feb-Mar and Oct-Nov. At sea c Pacific between 30N and 25S, incl Marshall Is (spec Apr-May, Huber 1971), Revillagigedo Is, Cocos I (Penhallurick 2003).
F: good numbers Hawaiian Is (5 km n of Na Pali coast, Harrison 1990); 17 usually far offshore Hawaiian Is Jun-Jul
(Chartier); 8 in Hawaiian Is EEZ Aug-Nov (M. Force).
O. leucorhoa Leach's Storm-Petrel
leuchoroa At sea n Pacific Nov-Mar s to 15S, incl Mariana Is, Marshall Is (3 specs, Huber 1971; Pyle and Engbring 1985), Kiribati (Phoenix Is, Line Is, Pratt 1987), Hawaiian Is,
Marquesas Is (this subsp?) and Galapagos Is. Cas NZ (NI Apr and Aug), Chatham Is (Rabbit I- prospecting Nov-Dec).
F: 55 in Hawaiian Is EEZ Aug-Nov (M. Force).
beali (incl O. l. willetti) At sea e Pacific Nov-Mar between 28N and
O. l. chapmani At sea off California and southward; cas >200
O. l. socorroensis Breeds Guadalupe I. Eggs May-Jun.
At sea Oct-Apr n to California and s to 15S.
O. l. cheimomnestes
Breeds Guadalupe I (most of this population have white rumps- Howell and Webb 1995). Eggs Oct-Nov. At sea Apr-Sep s to 15S.
macrodactyla Guadalupe Storm-Petrel
Extinct. Bred formerly Guadalupe
O. monorhis Swinhoe's Storm-Petrel
Considered by some
authors conspecific with O. leucorhoa Leach's Storm-Petrel.
At sea nw
Pacific breeding season, migrates Sep-Apr to ne Indian Ocean. Reg vis Hawaiian Is.
tristrami Tristram's Storm-Petrel
Breeds s Izu Is, Iwo Is, ?Ogasawara Is (Harrison 1990; extinct Torishima, Penhallurick 2003), ?Mariana Is (Pyle and Engbring 1985), Hawaiian Is (10,000 inds nw islands e to Nihoa). Eggs Jan. At sea in
vicinity in cw Pacific.
F: Hawaiian Is (seen Feb near Necker I, Lonsdale); 3 in Hawaiian Is EEZ Aug-Nov, M. Force).
markhami Markham's Storm-Petrel
At sea e Pacific between 15N and 30S. Cas Clipperton I, Cocos I, Galapagos Is.
O. matsudairae Matsudaira's
Breeds Iwo Is (Kitaiwojima, Minamiiwojima). Eggs? At sea
Jun-Jan s of breeding location between 30N and New Guinea, possibly ne of New
Guinea. Unc migrant Palau. Hypo Caroline Is (between Kosrae and Pohnpei, Pyle and Engbring 1985).
F: Ogasawara Is (19 on ferry 5-6 Jun between Chichijima and Hahajima, Danzenbaker).
O. melania Black Storm-Petrel
At sea e
Pacific California to Peru. Cas Revillagigedo Is, Galapagos Is.
homochroa Ashy Storm-Petrel
At sea n California to Mexico; cas >200 miles offshore?
O. hornbyi Ringed Storm-Petrel
sea Jul-Nov off s Peru and n Chile between 25S and 35S, further n Aug-Dec, to
O. furcata Fork-tailed Storm-Petrel
plumbea At sea ne Pacific s Sep-May to
35N. Acc Hawaiian Is (Scott et al 2001, Pyle 2002).
At sea off Peru and Chile between 6S and 37S; cas over 200 miles offshore?
P. magellani Magellanic
At sea off Chile; cas over 200 miles offshore?
georgicus South Georgian Diving-Petrel
The small population on Whenua Hou (Codfish I, NZ) appears to be more closely related to P. georgicus of South Georgia than to Common Diving-Petrel taxa in the NZ region, although it may also be sufficiently differentiated from the birds of South Georgia to be a separate species (Paterson et al 2000).
Breeds NZ (SI: Codfish I) 60-70 prs. Extirpated Auckland Is and Macquarie I (OSNZ 1990). Eggs Nov.
At sea in vicinity.
P. urinatrix Common Diving-Petrel
u. urinatrix Breeds NZ 100,000-1,000,000 prs (islands off NI and in Cook Strait). Eggs Aug-Sep. At sea in vicinity.
chathamensis Breeds Chatham Is (essentially all Rangatira=Southeast I), NZ (Solander Is, islands off Stewart I), Snares
Is 250,000 prs (Miskelly et al 2001). Eggs Sep-Oct. At sea in vicinity, but
absent May-Aug onshore Snares Is.
P. u. exsul Breeds Macquarie I 20 prs,
Auckland Is, Campbell I, Antipodes Is "possibly a few 100,000s" (Tennyson et al 2002). Eggs Oct. At sea in
aethereus Red-billed Tropicbird
P. a. mesonauta Breeds
Revillagigedo Is, Galapagos Is several thousand prs. Eggs year round, but
synchronous Galapagos Is (Plazas), possibly due to plentiful space for nesting
(Castro and Phillips 1996). At sea tropical e Pacific between California (peak
Sep) and Peru. Cas (juvs?) Hawaiian Is (French Frigate Shoals, Nihoa, Kauai, AOU 1998),
Marquesas Is, Tuamotu Arch. Recs for Fiji considered incorrect (Watling 2001) and those for Marshall Is and Caroline Is (Kosrae), considered hypothetical (Pyle and Engbring 1985), although there is a specimen from Marshall Is (Ratak group).
F: 94 Galapagos Is (mostly off Floreana, Champion, and Enderby, Chartier).
rubricauda Red-tailed Tropicbird
Although Tarburton (1989) showed
that measurements are clinal in the Pacific, and suggested that the traditional
subspecies were invalid, the data (wing, culmen) show that Pacific birds can
generally be assigned to subspecies mensurally. The Indian ocean subspecies
rubricauda and westralis are generally not separable, however,
from each other or from melanorhynchos, suggesting that there may be 3
valid races, as shown below.
P. r. rothschildi Breeds Iwo Is,
Ogasawara Is, Mariana Is (Maug, Pagan), Marshall Is (Pyle and Engbring 1985), Wake I (Pyle and Engbring 1985), Hawaiian Is 12,000 prs, Johnston I, ?Clipperton I (Howell and Webb 1995).
Vis Caroline Is (Pohnpei, Truk). Cas (this subsp?) Palau.
F: Hawaiian Is (Midway Is: Sand, Eastern, a few thousand Apr, Vandenberg). Mariana Is (Saipan: 3 at cliffs Marpi Forest S. Smith, Talbot; Rota: 10 at bird sanctuary, Talbot).
P. r. rubricauda (incl melanorhynchus) Breeds islands of tropical Pacific
between ranges of rothschildi and roseotinctus: Kiribati (Phoenix Is, Line Is), Samoa (Rose Atoll), Fiji, Tonga, Cook Is (Mangaia <100 prs, Rarotonga <100 prs, Mitiaro <100 prs, Manuae <100 prs, Takutea 1000-10,000 prs, Suwarrow 100-1000 prs, Palmerston 100-1000 prs, Pukapuka <100 prs, Penrhyn <100 prs, ?Manihiki, ?Rakahanga, Holyoak 1980), Tuamotu Is, Tubuai (Rurutu, Rimatara, Tubuai, Raivavao, Rapa, Penhallurick 2003), Pitcairn Is, ?Easter I. Eggs year round most locations. Vis Marquesas Is (Chester et al 1998), Niue.
P. r. roseotinctus (For use of roseotinctus, not roseotincta, see David and Gosselin (2002a)).
Breeds Norfolk I 400 inds, Lord Howe I 200 inds, Kermadec Is 60 prs. Eggs peak
Dec-Apr Kermadec Is and Norfolk I, Nov-Feb at Lord Howe I (Hutton 1991).
F: Lord Howe I (seen Apr, Bielewicz; easily sen Apr from atop Malabar, Walker). Norfolk I (most Oct-Nov, Hermes; roosting cliff Rocky Point Mar, Duranti).
P. r. subsp. At sea between 40N and 40S, e to Guadalupe I, Revillagigedo Is, Clipperton I (see rothschildi; AOU 1957, 1998). Cas Solomon Is, Vanuatu, New Caledonia, Nauru, Tuvalu, Tokelau Is (Penhallurick 2003), NZ (Jan-May and Oct NI). Acc Galapagos Is.
P. lepturus White-tailed
P. l. dorothea Breeds Ogasawara Is, Iwo Is, Palau, Mariana
Is, Caroline Is, Wake I, Marshall Is, Kiribati (Phoenix Is, Line Is), Nauru, Hawaiian Is (main islands, Midway Is), Vanuatu, New Caledonia,Tuvalu, Fiji, Samoa, Tonga, Cook Is (Rarotonga 100-1000 prs, Aitutaki few prs, Mangaia few prs, ?Pukapuka, Holyoak 1980), Niue (Powlesland et al 2000), Society Is, Marquesas Is, Tuamotu Is, Tubuai Is, Gambier Is 15-22 prs, Pitcairn Is, Easter I. Eggs year round. At sea w and c Pacific between 30N and
30S. Cas Solomon Is, NZ (Dec-Jun NI), Lord Howe I (Hutton 1991). Acc Clipperton I, 300-500 miles off So. California Dec 1989.
F: Palau (Peleliu: seen Dec, de Vries; common, Engbring 1988). Caroline Is (seen Yap, Pohnpei; Talbot, S. Smith). Mariana Is (Saipan: seen, S. Smith). Samoa (Savaii: common Aug, Reed 1980).
conspicillatus Australian Pelican
Cas Solomon Is, Vanuatu, New
Caledonia, Aug-Dec Fiji, Norfolk I, Aug-Jun NZ. Acc Palau.
occidentalis Brown Pelican
P. o. urinator Res Galapagos
F: 1300 throughout, esp northern islands (Chartier).
californicus Acc Guadalupe I, Revillagigedo Is.