Broad-billed, Salvin's, and Antarctic Prions are often considered separate species due to differences in bill structure and coloration (Harper 1980; Sibley and Monroe 1990), but some authors (Harrison 1983, Cox 1980) believe Salvin's to be intermediate between the other 2, with both of which it interbreeds, and also that Broad-billed and Slender-billed are conspecific due to interbreeding where their ranges overlap. Cox (1980) noted interbreeding between Fairy and Fulmar Prions, suggesting conspecificity (Harrison 1983). Thus various treatments indicate as few as 2 (Cox 1980) or as many as 6 species (Harper 1980).
Halobaena caerulea Blue Petrel
Although resembling a small Pterodroma in behavior, its affinities otherwise are closer to Pachyptila.
Breeds Macquarie I 500-600 prs. At sea Jul-Oct n to 35S, 20S off Peru. Eggs Oct.
Pachyptila vittata Broad-billed Prion
Breeds Chatham Is ("millions" incl Southeast I 300,000 prs), NZ (Stewart I, Codfish I, Solander Is, islands in Foveaux Strait, islands off s SI), Snares Is 2000-5000 prs. Eggs Aug-Sep. At sea in winter n to 30S around and somewhat east of NZ and off se Australia.
P. salvini Salvin's Prion
P. s. salvini At sea (juvs) Jun-Aug e to NZ between 35S and 55S.
P. desolata Antarctic Prion
P. d. macquariensis (=alter) Breeds (but see P. d. desolata) Macquarie I 49,000 prs, Auckland Is 50,000 prs. Eggs Dec-Jan. At sea May-Aug n to 35S, to 5S off S. America. Cas Lord Howe I, Kermadec Is, New Caledonia, Vanuatu.
P. d. desolata Cas May-Aug ne to NZ. Warham (1990) considers this the subspecies breeding at Macquarie I.
P. d. banksi Cas May-Aug ne to NZ.
P. d. subsp Acc Galapagos Is.
P. belcheri Slender-billed Prion
Breeds Isla Noir off Chile. May breed Macquarie I (present Jan and late Mar, R. Clarke). Eggs Nov. Isla Noir breeders at sea westward to sc Pacific (not as far as NZ) and n off S. America to 15S off Peru; s Atlantic and s Indian breeders at sea Jun-Sep e to NZ and n to 35S, more numerous NI than SI (Enticott and Tipling 1997). Cas Kermadec Is, Java, thus possible subtropical sw Pacific.
P. turtur Fairy Prion
P. t. turtur Breeds 1,000,000 prs NZ (Poor Knights Is, Stephens Is, Trio Is, Brothers I, Motunau I), Chatham Is. Eggs Oct-Nov. At sea sw Pacific n to 30S, including Kermadec Is, Norfolk I. Cas n to Coral Sea area, incl Lord Howe I.
P. t. subantarctica Breeds NZ (Stewart I: Big South Cape I), Snares Is except Western Chain 4000 prs (Miskelly et al 2001), Antipodes Is 1000-5000 prs (Tennyson et al 2002), Campbell I, Macquarie I 40 prs. Eggs Oct-Nov, mid-Nov Snares Is. At sea in vicinity.
P. t. subsp Breeds NZ (SI: Dunedin, Loh 2000).
P. crassirostris Fulmar Prion
P. c. pyramidalis (but see Harper 1980, Warham 1990, where pyramidalis included in crassirostris) Breeds Chatham Is (Forty-fours and Pyramid 1000-5000 prs). At sea in vicinity, cas to NZ.
P. c. crassirostris Breeds Snares Is (Western Chain) <400-600 prs (Miskelly et al 2001), Bounty Is, 80,000 prs. At sea in vicinity, Cas NZ. Eggs Nov.
P. c. eatoni Breeds Auckland Is 1000-5000 prs. At sea in vicinity. Cas NZ.
P. c. subsp. At sea e to 1660 km ESE Chatham Is, furthest e rec (Enticott and Tipling 1997).
Pterodroma axillaris Chatham Island Petrel
Breeds Chatham Is (Rangatira I 100 prs, total 500-1000 inds). Eggs Dec-Jan. At sea in vicinity Dec- May, possibly mostly to south: 11 were observed off Bounty Is Jan 2000 (Shirihai 2002). Absent breeding location, possibly to n Pacific, Jun-Nov.
P. nigripennis Black-winged Petrel
Breeds New Caledonia, Lord Howe I 100-1000 prs, Norfolk I (Philip I) 50-100 prs, NZ (East and Portland Is off NI, Three Kings Is), Kermadec Is 1,000,000-3,000,000 prs, Chatham Is (Rangatira, Mangere, poss Pitt, Forty-fours, Star Keys, Jenkins and Cheshire 1982), Tonga, Cook Is (Rarotonga), Tubuai Is (Rapa, Bass Rocks). Eggs Kermadec Is, Phillip I Dec-Jan, Lord Howe I Jan (Hutton 1991). At sea Oct-May vicinity of breeding locations (Jenkins and Cheshire 1982), Apr-Oct to 30N in c Pacific, incl near Japan, Hawaiian Is, Kiribati, Marshall Is, Fiji, Tonga, Cook Is, Society Is, Marquesas Is, near Baja California and s to Peru.
F: Seen readily over Ned's Beach, L Howe, Dec (Quested); Ned's or Blinky Beach a few each day Apr (Walker), Point Howe, Norfolk I (Duranti); seen in nos 200m+ from shore Norfolk May (Clarke); seen area of Marshall Is Feb (Lonsdale); 264 in Hawaiian Is EEZ in period Aug-Nov (M. Force).
P. occulta Vanuatu Petrel
Breeds Vanuatu (Banks Is or northern Vanuatu, Imber and Tennyson 2001, Bregulla 1992). At sea to Australia; winter possibly to north Pacific (Imber and Tennyson 2001). Six specimens collected near Banks Is (Vanuatu) Jan 1927. Breeds Aug-Mar (Bregulla 1992).
P. cervicalis White-necked Petrel
Sometimes considered conspecific with P. externa (Warham 1990).
Breeds Kermadec Is (Macauley I) 50,000 prs, Norfolk I (Moore 1999; "a few pairs" Dooley). At sea Oct-Jun vicinity of breeding locations sw Pacific poss n as far as s Tonga; May-Oct n to 30N in nw Pacific (Fiji and Tonga May-Jun, 6 recs Japan Jul-Sep, but unrecorded Palau, Caroline Is, Mariana Is, Pyle and Engbring 1985), e to 110E incl Hawaiian Is, also Kiribati, Fiji, Tonga, Samoa, Cook Is (Holyoak 1980). Cas Lord Howe I, Jan-Apr NZ (NI). Hypo Marshall Is (Pyle and Engbring 1985).
F: one from Rocky Pt, Norfolk I, Apr, one at sea Norfolk I May, ads and chicks Phillip I after dark (R. Clarke); 61 in Hawaiian Is EEZ Aug-Nov (M. Force).
P. externa Juan Fernandez Petrel
Breeds Juan Fernandez Is (Mas Afuera I 1,000,000 prs). Eggs Dec-Jan. At sea May-Nov e Pacific, from 90W to 170W, incl Hawaiian Is and n Jul-Sep to 20N incl Clipperton I and Revillagigedo Is. Cas Oct NZ. Acc Japan (Tokyo) Sep (Brazil 1991).
F: "locally quite common" Aug 150+ mi e of Hawaiian Is, few closer (Rowlett); 109 in Hawaiian Is EEZ Aug-Nov (M. Force).
P. inexpectata Mottled Petrel
Breeds Snares Is 30,000-40,000 prs (Miskelly et al 2001),NZ (Codfish I 300,000-400,000 prs- Miskelly et al 2001; Stewart I: Big South Cape I 10,000 prs; SI: island in L Hauroko, Shag I, Front I; Solander Is). Eggs Dec. At sea c Pacific Mar-Nov (absent Snares Is Jun-Oct; non- and failed breeders leave Feb-Mar), Jun-Sep n to Alaska and Aleutians; pass through tropics Mar-May and late Sep-Nov, incl Hawaiian Is, e Kiribati, Fiji-Tonga Mar-May and Oct, but a few follow S. American coast s to Humboldt Current. Acc Oct-Nov Galapagos Is, Dec-Mar Macquarie I where may begin breeding, incl 25 on Jan 22, 2003 (R. Clarke, M. Carter).
F: Mar-Apr and Oct-Nov off Oahu or Kauai (Pratt 1993); Apr Kauai to Lehua Rock (Melgar); 6+ off Kauai Apr (Shaw); 3 at sea Norfolk I May flying north (R. Clarke) ; 54 Hawaiian Is EEZ Aug-Nov (M. Force).
P. hypoleuca Bonin Petrel
Breeds Ogasawara Is, Iwo Is, w Hawaiian Is (Kure e to Nihoa 1,300,000 inds). Eggs Nov-Feb. At sea nw and c Pacific (May-Aug n to 40N in Japan area), incl Mariana Is, Marshall Is, Kiribati.
F: Thousands Midway, arrive at dusk Apr (Vandenberg); up to 25 ferry Ogasawara Is (Chichijima and Hahajima) 5-6 Jun (Danzenbaker); Boat off Oahu or Kauai Oct-Nov (Pratt 1993); 2877 in Hawaiian Is EEZ Aug-Nov (M. Force).
P. leucoptera Gould's Petrel
Breeds Australia (Cabbage Tree I 250-350 prs). Eggs Nov-Dec. At sea near breeding location, incl Vanuatu, Lord Howe I, and Tasman Sea, incl Feb and May Norfolk I and south to 44-50S late Mar (23 inds, R. Clarke), but absent from breeding site May-Oct; poss e to c Pacific (Enticott and Tipling 1997) to 10N and 90W south of Galapagos Is (Shirihai 2002).
F: 2 Norfolk I (near Phillip I) May (R. Clarke).
P. caledonica New Caledonian Petrel
Some authors consider P. caledonica and P. brevipes conspecific with P. leucoptera, but see Imber and Jenkins (1981).
Breeds New Caledonia, possibly Vanuatu (Efate?) and Solomon Is. Eggs Dec-Jan. At sea tropical- subtropical s Pacific May-Oct, incl Tonga, s to NZ (Stewart I), e to waters sw of Galapagos Jul-Oct. Main migration Apr-Jun and Oct-Jan (Imber and Jenkins 1981).
P. brevipes Collared Petrel
Breeds Vanuatu (Tanna, Banks Is), Fiji (Gau, Kadavu, Ovalau, Moala, Taveuni), Cook Is (Rarotonga); reported breeding Am Samoa incorrect (Watling 2001). At sea to c Pacific, incl Kiribati (Phoenix Is), Cook Is, Tuamotu Is, generally between 10N and 10S e almost to Galapagos Is. Breeding activity Vanuatu (Tanna) Apr (Bregulla 1992).
F: Seen near Marshall Is Feb (Lonsdale); Feb-Aug Fiji (Gau, 165+ 4 nights Apr-May, Watling and Lewanavanua 1985); cruise Fiji (off Nadi inside lagoon, T. Clarke).
P. cookii Cook's Petrel
Breeds NZ (Little Barrier I 50,000 prs, Great Barrier I 20 prs, Codfish I 100 prs). Eggs mostly Nov. At sea Apr-Oct to n and e Pacific, passing through tropics Jun-Aug, including Hawaiian Is (17 in Hawaiian Is EEZ in period Aug-Nov- M. Force) and Kiribati, to 3 areas of concentration in n and e Pacific: s of Aleutian Is, off coast of California and Mexico (incl Guadalupe I, Revillagigedo Is, and Clipperton I) and off Peru (Roberson and Bailey 1991a, 1991b).
P. pycrofti Pycroft's Petrel
Breeds NZ (Mercury Is: Red Mercury I 1000 prs, Double I 100 prs, Stanley I; Hen and Chickens Is: Lady Alice I 100 prs; Poor Knights Is: Aorangi 5-10 prs, Stephenson I 5-10 prs). Extirpated Norfolk I. Eggs Nov-Dec. At sea Apr-Dec to tropical Pacific in area 99-167W and 5S to 18N (Spear et al 1992; Howell et al 1996). Acc Jun Hawaiian Is (Spear et al 1999; Pyle 2002); one sighting in period Aug-Nov Hawaiian Is EEZ (M Force). Unconfirmed rec Jan Tasman Sea (HANZAB).
P. defilippiana De Filippi's Petrel
Breeds Juan Fernandez Is (Isla Robinson Crusoe =Mas Atierra and Santa Clara, few), Desventuradas Is (San Ambrosio I 10,000 in 1970, San Felix I 150-200 prs 1970). Eggs? At sea in vicinity, but absent Mar-Jun, prob at sea n to 12S off Peru (Roberson and Bailey 1991a, 1991b; Howell et al 1996) and poss west to central Pacific (Shirihai 2002).
P. longirostris Stejneger's Petrel
Breeds Juan Fernandez Is (Mas Afuera 131,000 prs). Eggs Dec-Jan? At sea May-Nov to n Pacific, nw to Japan and e (return journey?) to seas off California. Cas (non-breeders?) Nov-Jan NZ. Cas Marshall Is (Pyle and Engbring 1985), Hawaiian Is, incl Sep n of nw Hawaiian Is (Rowlett) and Kauai (Mike Force); 12 in Hawaiian Is EEZ in period Aug-Nov (M. Force).
P. alba Phoenix Petrel
Breeds Kiribati (Phoenix Is, Line Is), Tonga, Marquesas Is, Tuamotu Is, Pitcairn Is (Oeno I, Henderson I, Ducie I, Pitcairn I). At sea c Pacific generally near breeding locations, between 25N and 30S, incl Kermadec Is (OSNZ 1990). Cas Hawaiian Is, Fiji, Samoa, Society Is. Acc ?Cook Is (Holyoak 1980).
P. heraldica Herald Petrel
Considered by some authors conspecific with P. arminjoniana Trindade Petrel of the Atlantic Ocean. Black Pitcairn Is (Henderson I) breeders apparently mate assortatively and thus considered by some distinct (as P. atrata Henderson Petrel) possibly at species level (Brooke and Rowe 1996), but Gambier Is populations have dark and light morphs interbreeding (Thibault and Bretagnolle 1999).
Breeds New Caledonia (Chesterfield Reefs), Samoa (Tau), Tonga 100 prs (Hunga Group, Niuafoou? Recs Fakave incorrect-Watling 2001), ?Cook Is (?Rarotonga, Holyoak 1980), Marquesas Is (Ua Pu, Tahuata), Gambier Is 80-120 prs, Pitcairn Is (21,000 prs: Ducie, Henderson), Easter I. Eggs mostly Mar-Sep, but also other months. At sea c and e Pacific, mostly s of equator to 30S, but rarely Oct-Jan n to 40N in c Pacific, prob incl Clipperton I and Revillagigedo Is. Cas Hawaiian Is (4 seen in period Aug-Nov, no specific dates, in Hawaiian Is EEZ, M. Force), Solomon Is, Vanuatu (Penhallurick 2003).
P. sandwichensis Hawaiian Petrel
Breeds Hawaiian Is 400-600 prs; Maui, Lanai, Hawaii). Eggs Apr-May. At sea c Pacific, esp between Kiribati (Line Is) and Marquesas Is; absent from breeding locations Nov-Feb.
F: seen 700 km n of Haleakala Feb (Lonsdale); Haleakala crater, just below Vis Center at crater overlook; use strong spotlight after dark Mar-Jul, can also see with scope esp Apr from Makahuena Pt, KA (Pratt 1993). Boat from Kona Apr (T. Pratt), boat from Kauai Aug (6; N Am Birds 56:121). One hour before dark, 6-10 mi ne Maui- staging Aug (Rowlett).
P. phaeopygia Galapagos Petrel
Considered by some authors conspecific with P. sandwichensis Hawaiian Petrel (=Dark-rumped Petrel), but accumulating evidence suggests otherwise (Tomkins and Milne 1991; Pratt and Pratt, in Scott et al 2001; AOU 2002). There are at least 3 different Galapagos populations: San Salvador, breeding Jan-Oct; Santa Maria, breeding Oct-Aug; and Santa Cruz, breeding Mar-Jan.
Breeds Galapagos Is 10,000-50,000 prs (Isabela, San Cristobal, Santa Cruz 9,000 prs, San Salvador, Santa Maria- AOU 2002). At sea ec Pacific, between Mexico (incl Revillagigedo Is) and n Peru.
F: 10 around Santa Cruz Jul (Ottesen); 37 at sea between islands Jun-Jul (Chartier).
P. neglecta Kermadec Petrel
P. n. neglecta Breeds Norfolk I (Phillip I) a few prs (Moore 1999), Lord Howe I (Ball's Pyramid) a few prs, Hutton 1991, Penhallurick 2003), Kermadec Is 5000-10,000 prs, Tonga (Ata- Watling 2001), Tubuai Is, Tuamotu Is, Pitcairn Is (Ducie, Oeno), Easter I. Eggs Kermadec Is most Oct-Mar, but possible almost any month; most eggs Meyer I Jan, later than Raoul I, where now extirpated, suggesting possibly remnants from Raoul I population. Breeds Lord Howe (Ball's Pyramid) Nov-May. Cas New Caledonia, Vanuatu, Solomon Is (Penhallurick 2003), Cook Is (Holyoak 1980).
F: Seen Apr Lord Howe (Bielewicz), Ball's Pyramid area Jan (Shimba) or Apr (Walker), can be called down on Mt Gower by shouting (Hutton 1991), 3 over Phillip I dusk, one off Music Valley, Norfolk I May (R. Clarke), Phillip I Feb (Dooley).
P. n. juana Breeds Juan Fernandez Is (Isla Robinson Crusoe =Mas Atierra, Santa Clara), Desventuradas Is (San Ambrosio I, San Felix I). At sea vicinity; nw to central Pacific?
P. n subsp? At sea 35N-35S in most of central Pacific; n (mostly non-breeders?) to 40N, especially Nov-Jan; nw to Caroline Is (Truk) and Marshall Is (Pyle and Engbring 1985), ne to Hawaiian Is ("seen daily in small numbers" off Hawaii Aug- Rowlett; 33 in Hawaiian Is EEZ Aug-Nov- M. Force, Kure I, Midway Is, Penhallurick 2003). Cas NZ (Jan-Apr NI, Jan SI).
P. ultima Murphy's Petrel
Breeds Tubuai Is, Gambier Is (Manui 5-10 prs- Thibault and Bretagnolle 1999), Pitcairn Is (Henderson, Ducie 250,000 prs, Oeno). Eggs Apr-May? most locations, but fledgling at Ducie I Jan and no birds there Mar. At sea in vicinity, n (non-breeders? Ducie I breeders?) Mar-Jun to 54N in n Pacific (Bailey et al 1989). Cas Sep-Oct Hawaiian Is.
P. solandri Providence Petrel
Breeds Lord Howe I 27,000 prs, Norfolk I (Phillip I) 20 inds (Hermes et al 1986). Eggs May. At sea Apr-Oct w Tasman, Nov-Feb to nw Pacific, incl New Caledonia, Solomon Is, Vanuatu (Penhallurick 2003), possible May-Sep ne Pacific (Bailey et al 1989). Acc NZ (w coast NI).
F: Seen "teeming" Little I area Lord Howe I, Apr (Bielewicz). Can be called down by shouting on Mt Gower (Hutton 1991). Common winter Lord Howe I (Quested). Norfolk I: 20-30 Phillip I after dark, 2 at sea, May (R. Clarke).
P. macroptera Great-winged (Grey-faced) Petrel
P. m. gouldi Breeds NZ (islands off NI incl Whale I 30,00-40,000 prs). At sea sw Pacific between 30S and 50S, e to 130W, incl Tasman Sea to Australia (Palliser), cas Lord Howe I (Hutton 1991). Acc waters to s of Fiji (Watling 2001). Eggs Jun-Jul.
P. m. macroptera At sea (this subsp?) western Tasman Jun-Jul. No NZ or s Pacific records (Imber, pers. comm.), but dark-faced birds Macquarie I Feb may be nominate subspecies (M. Carter).
P. magentae Magenta Petrel
Breeds Chatham Is (Chatham I) 10 prs, 150 inds. Eggs Nov-Dec. At sea eastward Jun-Sep poss to se Pacific; 2 possible sightings 5 Aug 1995 in area of Juan Fernandez Is and Mar 1992 150 km west of Chile at 28-29S (Howell et al 1996).
P. lessonii White-headed Petrel
Breeds Macquarie I 16,000 inds, Auckland Is 200,000 prs, Antipodes Is 100,000-300,000 prs (Tennyson et al 2002). Eggs Nov-Dec. At sea Aug-Sep n to 30S, 24S off Chile Aug (Howell et al 1996). Cas Lord Howe I (Hutton 1991).
P. mollis Soft-plumaged Petrel
Subspecific determination of s hemisphere populations (mollis and dubia) is unsettled; opinions differ as to which race breeds at Antipodes Is.
P. m. dubia? Breeds Antipodes Is 1000-5000 prs (Tennyson et al 2002). May breed Macquarie I (Tasmania PWS; daily off North Head Oct, max 22 on 29 Oct 2002, daily Dec- R. Clarke). Eggs Nov-Dec. At sea in vicinity and n to NZ (NI) May-Jun and Aug-Dec.
F: one seen Kaikoura Feb (Melville; Medway 2001)