Emberiza citrinella Yellowhammer
E. c. subsp? Int NZ (NI, SI, Stewart I), Kermadec Is, Chatham Is. Cas Lord Howe I, Campbell I, Snares Is.
E. cirius Cirl Bunting
E. c. cirius Int NZ (SI, cas NI).
E. aureola Yellow-breasted Bunting
E. a. ornata Acc Iwo Is (Kita-iwojima).
E. melanocephala Black-headed Bunting
Acc Palau.
Diuca diuca Common Diuca-Finch
D. d. subsp? Int Easter I.
Sicalis flaveola Saffron Finch
S. f. subsp? Int Hawaiian Is (Hawaii, Oahu, ?Maui).
F: Hawaii: Kohala and Kona regions, D. Pratt; 4-6 on lawn near the south end of the Volcano Golf Course, in back of the clubhouse area, May 2002, Rycenga; Big Island Country Club, Lindsay. Oahu: established as of Feb 2003 sc Oahu from East Honolulu to Mililani to Kapolei, Donaldson. Maui: a few recs Keopuolani Park, Kahalui, apparently not established 2003, Starr.
Tiaris olivaceus Yellow-faced Grassquit
David and Gosselin (2002b) established that Tiaris is masculine.
T. o. subsp? Int Hawaiian Is (Oahu).
F: Manana Trail, Pratt 1993.
Geospiza magnirostris Large Ground-Finch
Res Galapagos Is (except Culpepper, Seymour, Baltra, Espanola; extirp San Cristobal, Santa Maria? Santa Fe? Fernandina?
F: 6 on Rabida and Isabela, Chartier.
G. fortis Medium Ground-Finch
Res Galapagos Is (except Genovesa, Culpepper, Wenman; extirp Espanola?
F: 470, usually the most common finch, most at Urvina Bay on Isabela, Chartier.
G. fuliginosa Small Ground-Finch
Res Galapagos Is (except Genovesa, Culpepper, Wenman).
F: 405 common, Chartier.
G. difficilis Sharp-beaked Ground-Finch
G. d. difficilis Res Galapagos Is (Genovesa, Pinta).
G. d. debilirostris Res Galapagos Is (San Salvador, Fernandina; extirp Isabela).
G. d. septentrionalis Res Galapagos Is (Culpepper, Wenman).
G. d. subsp? Extirp (extinct?) Galapagos Is (Santa Cruz, Santa Maria, San Salvador, Rabida, San Cristobal).
G. scandens Common Cactus-Finch
G. s. scandens Res Galapagos Is (San Salvador, Rabida).
F: seen Rabida, Chartier.
G. s. intermedia Res Galapagos Is (Santa Fe, Santa Maria, Santa Cruz, Isabela, San Cristobal; extirp Pinzon).
F: seen Isabela, San Cristobal, Chartier.
G. s. abingdoni Res Galapagos Is (Pinta).
G. s. rothschildi Res Galapagos Is (Marchena).
G. conirostris Large Cactus-Finch
G. c. conirostris Res Galapagos Is (Espanola).
F: 40 at Punta Suarez, Chartier.
G. c. propinqua Res Galapagos Is (Genovesa).
G. c. darwini Res Galapagos Is (Culpepper, Wenman).
Platyspiza crassirostris Vegetarian Finch
Res Galapagos Is (Isabela, Fernandina, Santa Cruz, San Salvador, Santa Maria, Marchena, Pinta, Rabida; extirp Pinzon, Santa Fe?).
F: 7 at cemetery San Cristobal and near Bellavista on Santa Cruz, Chartier.
Camarhynchus psittacula Large Tree-Finch
C. p. habeli Res Galapagos Is (Pinta, Marchena).
C. p. affinis Res Galapagos Is (Isabela, Fernandina).
F: seen highlands, Chartier.
C. p. psittacula Res Galapagos Is (Seymour, Santa Fe, Santa Cruz, Santa Maria, Rabida, San Salvador; extirp Pinzon?).
F: seen highlands, Chartier.
C. pauper Medium Tree-Finch
Res Galapagos Is (Santa Maria).
F: 2 seen highlands, Chartier.
C. parvulus Small Tree-Finch
C. p. parvulus Res Galapagos Is (San Salvador, Rabida, Santa Cruz, Seymour, Santa Fe, Isabela, Pinzon, Santa Maria, Fernandina).
F: 200, common esp Isabela, also Floreana, Santa Cruz, Chartier.
C. p. salvini Res Galapagos Is (San Cristobal).
F: common, Chartier.
Cactospiza pallida Woodpecker Finch
C. p. pallida Res Galapagos Is (San Salvador, Rabida, Seymour, Pinzon, Sana Cruz, Santa Maria).
F: seen highlands Santa Cruz, Chartier.
C. p. producta Res Galapagos Is (Isabela, Fernandina).
F: seen highlands Isabela, Chartier.
C. p. striatipecta Res Galapagos Is (San Cristobal).
C. heliobates Mangrove Finch
Res Galapagos Is (Isabela 35 prs; extirp Fernandina).
F: 3 seen Black Beach s of Tagus Cove, Chartier 1999.
Certhidea olivacea Warbler Finch
C. o. becki Res Galapagos Is (Culpepper, Wenman).
C. o. mentalis Res Galapagos Is (Genovesa).
C. o. fusca Res Galapagos Is (Pinta, Marchena).
C. o. olivacea Res Galapagos Is (San Salvador, Rabida, Seymour, Pinzon, Isabela, Fernandina, Santa Cruz).
F: fairly common Santa Cruz, Chartier.
C. o. bifasciata Res Galapagos Is (Santa Fe).
C. o. luteola Res Galapagos Is (San Cristobal).
F: fairly common, Chartier.
C. o. cinerascens Res Galapagos Is (Espanola).
C. o. ridgwayi Res Galapagos Is (Santa Maria).
Pinaroloxias inornata Cocos Finch
Res Cocos Is.
Pipilo maculatus Spotted Towhee
P. m. socorroensis Res Revillagigedo Is (Socorro).
P. m. maculatus Extirp Guadalupe I.
Spizella passerina Chipping Sparrow
S. p. subsp? Acc Guadalupe I.
Poocetes gramineus Vesper Sparrow
P. g. subsp? Acc Guadalupe I.
Chondestes grammacus Lark Sparrow
C. g. subsp? Acc Revillagigedo Is (Socorro).
Passerculus sandwichensis Savannah Sparrow
P. s. subsp? Acc Hawaiian Is (Kure).
Passerella iliaca Fox Sparrow
P. i. subsp? Acc Guadalupe I.
Melospiza lincolnii Lincoln's Sparrow
M. l. subsp? Acc Guadalupe I.
Zonotrichia albicollis White-throated Sparrow
Acc Guadalupe I.
Z. atricapilla Golden-crowned Sparrow
Acc Guadalupe I.
Z. leucophrys White-crowned Sparrow
Z. l. subsp? Cas Nov-Mar Guadalupe I.
Junco hyemalis Dark-eyed Junco
J. h. oreganus Cas Oct-Apr Guadalupe I.
J. insularis Guadalupe Junco
Res Guadalupe I 50-100 inds.
Calcarius lapponicus Lapland Longspur
C. l. coloratus Acc Ogasawara Is.
Plectrophenax nivalis Snow Bunting
P. n. vlasowae Acc Ogasawara Is (Dec Chichijima).
P. n. subsp? Acc Hawaiian Is (Kure).


Paroaria coronata Red-crested Cardinal
Int Hawaiian Is (Oahu, Kauai, Lanai, Molokai, Maui).
F: Kauai: Hanalei NWR, Lindsay.
P. capitata Yellow-billed Cardinal
P. c. subsp? Int Hawaiian Is (Hawaii).
F: seen Kona Coast Feb 1999, Mittleman; Kona coast kiawe thickets, Aimakapa Pond, Pratt 1993; Hapuna Beach, Lindsay.
Pheucticus ludovicianus Rose-breasted Grosbeak
Cas Guadalupe I, Revillagigedo Is, Galapagos Is (Genovesa, Fernandina).
P. melanocephalus Black-headed Grosbeak
Acc Guadalupe I.
Cardinalis cardinalis Northern Cardinal
C. c. subsp? Int Hawaiian Is (w to Kauai; cas Nihoa).
F: Hawaii: Puu Laau, Lindsay.
Passerina cyanea Indigo Bunting
Acc Galapagos Is, Revillagigedo Is (Socorro).
Spiza americana Dickcissel
Acc Clipperton I.


Icterus cucullatus Hooded Oriole
I. c. subsp? Acc Revillagigedo Is (Feb Socorro).
Sturnella neglecta Western Meadowlark
Cas Guadelupe I. Int Hawaiian Is (Kauai).
F: common lowlands, esp between Anahola and Kilauea, and Princeville, Pratt 1993.
Dolichonyx oryzivorous Bobolink
Vis Oct-Dec (cas Jul-Aug) Galapagos Is. Cas Cocos I, Oct-Dec Clipperton I.
Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus Yellow-headed Blackbird
Acc Revillagigedo Is (Socorro).
Euphagus cyanocephalus Brewer's Blackbird
Acc Guadalupe I.
Quiscalus mexicanus Great-tailed Grackle
Q. m. subsp? Acc Hawaiian Is (Oahu, AOU 1998).
Molothrus ater Brown-headed Cowbird
M. a. subsp? Cas Guadalupe I, Revillagigedo Is. Acc far at sea: 350 mi off Oregon Coast (Sanger 1967: Condor 69:89).


Fringilla coelebs Chaffinch
F. c. subsp? Int NZ (NI, SI, Stewart I), Chatham Is, Snares Is 20-30 ins (Miskelly et al 2001), Auckland Is, Campbell I. Cas Lord Howe I. Acc Dec Antipodes Is (Tennyson et al 2002), Norfolk I (Phillip I, Clarke 2001), Macquarie I Nov 2002 (R. Clarke).
F. montifringilla Brambling
Cas winter s Izu Is, Ogasawara Is, Iwo Is.
Serinus mozambicus Yellow-fronted Canary
S. m. subsp? Int Hawaiian Is (Oahu, Hawaii).
F: Oahu: Kapiolani Park, Pratt 1993. Hawaii: South Kohala-North Kona region, Pratt 1993; Big Island CC, Lindsay).
S. canaria Island Canary
Int Hawaiian Is (Midway Is).
F: 100+, Vendenberg.
Carduelis chloris European Greenfinch
C. c. subsp? Int Norfolk I, NZ (NI, SI, Stewart I), Chatham Is. Cas Snares Is (Miskelly et al 2001). Acc Kermadec Is, Lord Howe I (Hutton 1991), Campbell I.
C. sinica Oriental Greenfinch
C. s. kitlitzi Res Ogasawara Is, Iwo Is.
C. carduelis Eurasian Goldfinch
C. c. subsp? Int NZ (NI, SI, Stewart I), Chatham Is, Snares Is, Auckland Is. Acc Lord Howe I (Jordan; Hutton 1991), Norfolk I, Antipodes Is (Warham and Bell 1979), Macquarie I (C. c. britannica-Tasmania PWS).
C. spinus Eurasian Siskin
Cas winter s Izu Is, Ogasawara Is, Iwo Is.
C. flammea Common Redpoll
C. f. flammea Acc Ogasawara Is (Jan Hahajima).
C. f. subsp? Acc Hawaiian Is (Kure, Midway Is), Vanuatu (Aneityum).
C. f. subsp? The populations at the following locations are apparently a mix of C. cabaret and C. flammea, recently separated at the species level (Knox et al 2001).
Int NZ (NI,SI, self-int Stewart I). Res (self-int) Lord Howe I, Kermadec Is, Chatham Is, Snares Is <100 inds, Antipodes Is, Auckland Is, Campbell I, Macquarie I.
Carpodacus mexicanus House Finch
C. m. amplus Res Guadalupe I.
C. m. frontalis Int Hawaiian Is (w to Kauai; cas Nihoa).
F: Hawaiian Is (common, Pratt 1993).
Chaunoproctus ferreorostris Bonin Islands Grosbeak
Extinct. Res formerly Ogasawara Is.
Loxia curvirostra Red Crossbill
L. c. japonica Cas winter s Izu Is, Ogasawara Is, Iwo Is.
L. c. subsp? Cas Nov-Mar Guadalupe I (has bred).
Euphona migratoria Chinese Grosbeak
E. m. migratoria Acc Ogasawara Is (Chichijima).
E. personata Japanese Grosbeak
E. p. personata Acc Ogasawara Is (Chichijima).
Coccothraustes coccothraustes Hawfinch
C. c. japonicus Cas s Izu Is, Ogasawara Is. Acc Iwo Is (Iwojima).


Telespiza cantans Laysan Finch
Res Hawaiian Is (Laysan; int Pearl and Hermes Reef).
T. ultima Nihoa Finch
Res Hawaiian Is (Nihoa).
Psittirostra psittacea Ou
Res Hawaiian Is (Hawaii <400 inds; extirp Maui, Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, Kauai, Reynolds and Snetsinger, in Scott et al 2001).
F: Hawaii: tough; try area bounded by Saddle Rd on north, Kulani Tract to the south, Powerline Rd to the west, Pratt 1993.
Dysmorodrepanis munroi Lanai Hookbill
Extinct. Res formerly Hawaiian Is (Lanai; one specimen only).
Loxioides bailleui Palila
Res Hawaiian Is (Hawaii 2000-6000 inds).
F: above 7000 ft mamane-naio forest belt Mauna Kea, esp Puu Laau near cabin, Pratt 1993; Puu Laau, lower levels bewteen concrete stream crossings, Lindsay).
Rhodacanthis flaviceps Lesser Koa-Finch
Extinct. Res formerly Hawaiian Is (Hawaii).
R. palmeri Greater Koa-Finch
Extinct. Res formerly Hawaiian Is (Hawaii).
Chloridops kona Kona Grosbeak
Extinct. Res formerly Hawaiian Is (Hawaii).
Pseudonestor xanthophrys Maui Parrotbill
Res Hawaiian Is (Maui 500 inds).
F: Waikamoi Reserve, one relict koa grove at Hosmer; Waikamoi Flume, Pratt 1993.
Hemignathus virens Hawaii Amakihi
H. v. wilsoni Res Hawaiian Is (Maui, Molokai; extirp Lanai).
H. v. virens Res Hawaiian Is (Hawaii).
F: abund Puu Laau, Pratt 1993.
H. flavus (=chloris) Oahu Amakihi
Pyle (2002) used the epithet flavus, based on Olson (1996).
Res Hawaiian Is (Oahu).
H. kauaiensis (=stejnegeri) Kauai Amakihi
Res Hawaiian Is (Kauai).
F: Kalaupuhi Trail, Lindsay.
H. sagittirostris Greater Amakihi
Extinct. Res formerly Hawaiian Is (Hawaii).
H. parvus Anianiau
There is evidence to suggest this taxon is separate at the generic level, as Magumma (Pratt, in Scott et al 2001).
Res Hawaiian Is (Kauai).
F: common Kokee, Pratt 1993; Kalaupuhi Tr, Lindsay.
H. obscurus Lesser Akialoa
Pratt (in Scott et al 2001) discusses the Akialoas, including the possibility that they differ at the generic level from Hemignathus as Akialoa. Apparent sympatry, based on palaeontological evidence, indicated five species, all now extinct (Olson and James 1995): Akialoa obscura Hawaii Akialoa, A. lanaiensis Maui Nui Akialoa, A. ellisiana Oahu Akialoa, A. stejnegeri Kauai Akialoa, and A. upupirostris Hoopoe-billed Akialoa.
Extinct. Res formerly Hawaiian Is (Hawaii).
H. ellisianus Greater Akialoa
H. e. procerus (=stejnegeri) Extinct. Res formerly Hawaiian Is (Kauai).
H. e. lanaiensis Extinct. Res formerly Hawaiian Is (Lanai).
H. e. ellisianus Extinct. Res formerly Hawaiian Is (Oahu).
H. lucidus Nukupuu
H. l. affinis Res Hawaiian Is (Maui <10 inds?, Reynolds and Snetsinger, in Scott et al 2001).
F: East Maui Wilderness, access extremely difficult, Pratt 1993.
H. l. hanapepe Res Hawaiian Is (Kauai <10 inds, Reynolds and Snetsinger, in Scott et al 2001).
F: Alakai Swamp, Pratt 1993.
H. l. wilsoni Extinct? Res Hawaiian Is (Hawaii- one sighting, one specimen).
H. l. lucidus Extinct. Res formerly Hawaiian Is (Oahu).
Heterorhynchus wilsoni Akiapolaau
Evidence suggests that this taxon differs at the generic level from Hemignathus (Pratt, in Scott et al 2001). If so, the specific epithet reverts to wilsoni from munroi, which is required if Nukupuus and Akiapolaau are congeneric (AOU 1998).
Res Hawaiian Is (Hawaii 1500 inds).
F: Powerline Rd, large Kipuka 4 mi in from Saddle Rd, McKiernan; Hakalau Forest NWR, Puu Oo, Pratt 1993.
Oreomystis bairdi Akikiki (Kauai Creeper)
Res Hawaiian Is (Kauai).
F: Alakai Swamp Trail beyond jct Pihea Ridge Trail; Kawaikoi Stream Trail, Pratt 1993.
O. mana Hawaii Creeper
Res Hawaiian Is (Hawaii 12,000 inds).
F: Powerline Rd, large Kipuka 4 mi in from Saddle Rd, McKiernan; Hakalau Forest NWR, Pratt 1993.
Paroreomyza maculata Oahu Alauahio (Oahu Creeper)
Extinct? Res Hawaiian Is (Oahu).
F: Try Aiea Ridge Trail, Pratt 1993.
P. newtoni Maui Alauahio (Maui Creeper)
P. n. newtoni Res Hawaiian Is (Maui).
F: seen Feb 1999, Mittleman; Hosmer Grove, virtually 100%, Pratt 1993.
P. n. montana Extinct. Formerly res Hawaiian Is (Lanai).
P. flammea Kakawahie (Molokai Creeper)
Extinct (Reynolds and Snetsinger, in Scott et al 2001). Formerly res Hawaiian Is (Molokai).
Loxops coccineus Akepa
L. c. coccineus Res Hawaiian Is (Hawaii).
F: Powerline Rd, large kipuka 4 mi from Saddle Rd, McKiernan; Hakalau Forest NWR, hard to miss, Pratt 1993; Puu Ou Trail near deadend at recent lava flows-same spot as McKiernan? Pratt, 1993.
L. c. ochraceus Res Hawaiian Is (Maui <230 inds).
L. c. wolstenholmei (=rufus) Extinct (Pyle 2002). Res formerly Hawaiian Is (Oahu).
L. caeruleirostris Akekee
Res Hawaiian Is (Kauai).
F: seen Feb 1999, Mittleman; Kokee f common, Pratt 1993.
Ciridops ana Ulaaihawane
Extinct. Res formerly Hawaiian Is (Hawaii).
Vestiaria coccinea Iiwi
Res Hawaiian Is (Kauai, Maui, Hawaii, Oahu; self-int Molokai? Reynolds and Snetsinger, in Scott et al 2001; extirp Lanai).
F: Kauai: fairly easy Kokee area, Pratt 1993; Maui: Hosmer Grove, Pratt 1993; Hawaii: Saddle Rd kipukas, Pratt 1993; Puu Lau, Hakalau NWR, Lindsay.
Drepanis pacifica Hawaii Mamo
Extinct. Res formerly Hawaiian Is (Hawaii).
D. funerea Black Mamo
Extinct. Res formerly Hawaiian Is (Molokai).
Palmeria dolei Akohekohe
Res Hawaiian Is (Maui; extirp? Molokai).
F: Maui: East Maui Wilderness f common, access extremely difficult; Waikamoi Preserve; Waikamoi Flume, Pratt 1993.
Himatione sanguinea Apapane
Res Hawaiian Is (Kauai, Maui, Hawaii, Oahu, Molokai, Lanai; acc Niihau).
F: Hawaii: easiest Volcano House, Pratt 1993. Common most islands, Pratt 1993.
H. freethi Laysan Honeycreeper
Pratt (in Scott et al 2001) argues the case for species status, although Pyle (2002) retains as subspecies of sanguinae.
Extinct. Res formerly Hawaiian Is (Laysan).
Melamprosops phaesoma Poouli
Res Hawaiian Is (Maui 2-3 inds- N Am Birds 56:121).
F: Hanawi.


Passer domesticus House Sparrow
P. d. domesticus Int Hawaiian Is (w to Niihau), Vanuatu (Efate), New Caledonia, Norfolk I, NZ (NI, SI, Stewart I), Chatham Is, Snares Is <14 inds (Miskelly et al 2001), Easter I, Guadalupe I. Acc Revillagigedo Is (Socorro), Campbell I, Auckland Is, Antipodes Is (Tennyson et al 2002).
F: New Caledonia: widespread urban areas, Gregory.
P. montanus Eurasian Tree Sparrow
P. m. subsp? Int Mariana Is (Guam, Saipan, Tinian, Rota), Palau (Peleliu), Caroline Is (Yap), Marshall Is (Kwajalein).
F: Mariana Is (Guam, Saipan, Rota, Tinian: low numbers towns, Talbot, S. Smith). Yap: small nos towns, Talbot, S. Smith. Peleliu: seen small nos towns, Talbot.


Uraeginthus bengalus Red-cheeked Cordonbleu
U. b. subsp? Int Hawaiian Is (Hawaii).
F: Puu Anahulu area, Pratt 1993; MP 21.9 Puu Anahulu, Faike.
Estrilda caerulescens Lavender Waxbill
Int Hawaiian Is (Hawaii, Oahu?).
F: Hawaii: MP 21.9 Puu Anahulu along Mamalahoa Highway, Faike, Pratt 1993.
E. perreini Black-tailed Waxbill
E. p. subsp Int Hawaiian Is (Oahu, Long 1981; not listed by Pyle 2002).
E. melpoda Orange-cheeked Waxbill
E. m. subsp? Int Hawaiian Is (Oahu, Maui).
F: Oahu: Kaneohe in grass bordering Bay View Golf Center, Pratt 1993. Maui: Hansen Rd between Puunene and the dump, Pratt 1993.
E. troglodytes Black-rumped Waxbill
Int Hawaiian Is (Oahu? Hawaii).
F: Hawaii: South Kohala-North Kona region; elusive, Pratt 1993.
E. astrild Common Waxbill
E. a. subsp? Int Hawaiian Is (Oahu), Society Is (Tahiti, Moorea), New Caledonia, Vanuatu (Efate).
F: New Caledonia: abund some areas Gr Terre, Clarke. Hawaiian Is (Oahu: common near Kahuku, near Bay View Golf Center, Pratt).
Amandava amandava Red Avadavat
A. a. subsp? Int Hawaiian Is (Oahu, Hawaii, Kauai), Fiji (Viti Levu, Vanua Levu, Kadavu, Taveuni, Lomaiviti Group), Vanuatu (self-int Efate).
F: Fiji (Viti Levu: common grasslands, Myers 1996; Kadavu: scarce, Clarke 2000). Hawaiian Is (Oahu: Pearl Harbor edges of cane fields, Campbell NWR, Pratt 1993; Hawaii: North Kona-South Kohala, Puu Anahulu, Pratt 1993; Bid Island CC, Faike).
Emblema temporalis Red-browed Firetail
E. t. subsp? Int Society Is (Tahiti, Moorea), Marquesas Is (Nuku Hiva, Ua Huka, Ua Pou, Hiva Oa, Chester et al 1998). Acc (origin?) Vanuatu (Efate).
Erythrura trichroa Blue-faced Parrotfinch
E. t. pelewensis Res Palau (Koror to Mecherchar, v rare Babelduab, absent Peleliu).
F: mostly in casuarina along shoreline of high limestone islands; rare, Engbring 1988.
E. t. clara Res Caroline Is (Truk, Pohnpei fewer than 100 inds).
F: Pohnpei: only 5-6 seen in last 7 years grassland/savanna, Buden 2000. Truk: 3 Tol South, S. Smith; 5 Japanese Gun, Weno, Talbot.
E. t. trichroa Res Caroline Is (Kosrae).
F: road inland from Utwa, Watson.
E. t. woodfordi Res Solomon Is (Guadalcanal, Bougainville- this subsp?, Kulambangra-this subsp?).
F: Bougainville: common high altitudes Crown Prince Range, first recorded 1969, Hadden 1981.
E. t. cyaneifrons Res Vanuatu (Banks Is: Gaua, Vanuatu except Malakula, Espiritu Santo), New Caledonia (Loyalty Is: Lifou, Mare).
F: New Caledonia (Loyalty Is: Lifou: 2 in garden of the last house on the left as you leave the airport going towards the first T intersection, Quested).
E. psittacea Red-throated Parrotfinch
Res New Caledonia.
F: Mt Koghi, Quested; 2-3 daily PTRB, 1 Mt Koghi, Fairbank; easiest around Ponerihouen where common, Clarke.
E. pealii Fiji Parrotfinch
Considered part of E. cyaneovirens by some authors, but see Bregulla (1992), Watling (2001).
Res Fiji (Yasawa Is, Mamanuca Is, Viti Levu, Vanua Levu, Taveuni, Kadavu).
F: Kadavu: seen, Lonsdale. Viti Levu: road to Joske's Thumb, Lonsdale; quite common edge habitats, Myers; common Nausori Hglds, 6 Joske's Thumb, Sargeant 1992. Taveuni: 2 transmitter road, Sargeant 1992.
E. cyaneovirens Samoan Parrotfinch
E. c. cyaneovirens Res Samoa (Upolu).
F: Mt Vaea, Vaisigano, Lonsdale.
E. c. gaughrani Res Samoa (Savaii, duPont, WB 84:375, 1972).
F: not common, hard to see in thick foliage, best count 4 at 300-500m, none higher, Reed 1979.
E. regia Royal Parrotfinch
E. r. regia Res Vanuatu (Banks Is, Vanuatu except Aneityum, Efate, duPont 1972, Bregulla 1992).
E. r. serena (incl efatensis) Res Vanuatu (Aneityum, Efate, duPont 1972, Bregulla 1992).
E. kleinschmidti Pink-billed Parrotfinch
Res Fiji (Viti Levu).
F: open areas around rice fields; often overlooked, DuPont 1975.
Lonchura cantans African Silverbill
This species and L. malabarica Indian Silverbill were formerly considered conspecific (see AOU 7th Edition) but have now been afforded specific status (Harrison, 1964: Ibis 106: 462-468).
Int Hawaiian Is (w to Kauai).
F: Hawaii: common South Kohala-North Kona region, Pratt 1993; Big Island CC, Lindsay; MP 21.0 Puu Anahulu, Faike; Maui: central isthmus and Kihei area, Pratt 1993).
L. punctulata Nutmeg Mannikin (Scaly-breasted Munia)
L. p. cabanisi Int Hawaiian Is (w to Kauai), Caroline Is (int or self-int Yap). Palau (int and extirp, Baker 1951, Pratt 1987).
F: Caroline Is (Yap: 10-25 daily roadside grass, S. Smith, Talbot). Hawaiian Is: (Kauai: Hanalei NWR, Lindsay; Hawaii: Big Island CC, Lindsay).
L. atricapilla Southern Black-headed Mannikin
Formerly considered conspecific with L. malacca Chestnut Mannikin; the latter English name now probably best used for L. ferruginosa (Sibley and Monroe).
Palau (int Babelduab, Koror, Peleliu), Mariana Is (int Guam), Hawaiian Is (int Oahu, Kauai). Vanuatu (this sp? int Espiritu Santo). A report for Mariana Is (Guam) is considered incorrect (Pyle and Engbring 1985).
F: Palau (Angaur and Peleliu, supposed descendants of escapees, de Vries 1995; Peleliu: 100 daily settlements, Talbot). Mariana Is (Saipan: 2 Marpi Forest, S. Smith). Hawaiian Is (abund, mix of L. malacca and L. atricapilla?; Kauai: edges of cane fields, Pratt 1993; Hanalei NWR, Lindsay; Oahu: common central valley from Pearl Harbor to Haleiwa, Pratt 1993).
L. malacca Tricolored Mannikin
Int Hawaiian Is (Scott et al 2001).
L. hunsteini (=nigerrima) White-headed Finch (Hunstein's Munia)
L. h. minor Res Caroline Is (int Pohnpei, Pyle and Engbring 1985, Truk?).
F: Pohnpei: in vacant downtown lots Kolonia, Lonsdale 1999; 3-8 roadside grass road to fern forest, Talbot, S. Smith.
L. castaneothorax Chestnut-breasted Mannikin
L. c. castaneothorax Int Society Is (Moorea, Tahiti, Bora Bora, Raiatea), Self-int? Marquesas Is (Hiva Oa, Tahuata, Motane).
L. c. subsp? Int New Caledonia, Vanuatu (Espiritu Santo).
F: New Caledonia: near airport Noumea, Quested; seen near Ponerihouen and Touaourou, Clarke.
L. melaena Buff-bellied Black Mannikin
Res Solomon Is (Buka).
F: around airstrip, possibly elsewhere (Hadden 1981).
Padda oryzivora Java Sparrow
Int Fiji (Viti Levu; extirp Vanua Levu, Taveuni), Hawaiian Is (Oahu, Hawaii, Kauai).
F: Fiji (Viti Levu: 6 in Suva near Thurston Botanical Gardens, Sargeant 1992). Hawaiian Is (Hawaii: MP 21.9 Puu Anahulu, Faike).