Larus modestus Grey Gull
Acc May Cocos I.
L. canus Common Gull
Some authors consider the subspecies to be full species, L. kamtschatschensis Eastern Common Gull, and L. brachyrhynchus Mew Gull.
L. c. kamtschatschensis Cas Ogasawara Is (Chichijima), Iwo Is (Kitaiwojima). Hypo (this subsp?) Palau (Pyle and Engbring 1985).
L. c. brachyrhynchus Acc Hawaiian Is (Kure I).
L. delawarensis Ring-billed Gull
Vis Oct-May Hawaiian Is, Guadalupe I. Cas Kiribati (Line Is), Revillagigedo Is, Galapagos Is.
L. californicus California Gull
Vis Nov-Mar Guadalupe I. Cas Nov-Mar e Hawaiian Is. Acc Revillagigedo Is.
L. dominicanus Kelp Gull
Taxonomy of this species was reviewed by Jiguet (2002); NZ and S. American birds were indistinguishable, but populations in Antarctica are separable as L. d. austrinus.
L. d. dominicanus Res NZ (NI, SI, Stewart I), Chatham Is, Bounty Is, Antipodes Is, Snares Is (first bred ca 1990, Miskelly et al 2001), Auckland Is, Campbell I, Macquarie I 50-100 prs. At sea Tasman Sea, but only acc Aug and Nov Lord Howe I, Mar and Sep Norfolk I, Dec Kermadec Is, Jun Niue (Powlesland et al 2000), Galapagos Is (this subsp?).
L. glaucescens Glaucous-winged Gull
Vis Nov-Mar w Hawaiian Is, Guadalupe I. Cas e Hawaiian Is, Revillagigedo Is. Acc Johnston I.
F: Hawaiian Is (Midway I: subad Sand I Apr, Vandenberg).
L. occidentalis Western Gull
Res Guadalupe I. Cas Hawaiian Is.
L. hyperboreus Glaucous Gull
L. h. pallidissimus Acc Ogasawara Is (Chichijima).
L. h. subsp? Cas Hawaiian Is.
L. smithsonianus American Herring Gull
This taxon appears to differ specifically from European taxa L. argentatus subsp. with which it was previously considered conspecific (Yesou 2002).
Vis Nov-Mar Hawaiian Is. Cas Johnston I, Guadalupe I, Revillagigedo Is (Clarion I).
L. vegae East Siberian (Vega) Gull.
This taxon may deserve specific status (Yesou 2002).
L. v. vegae Cas Ogasawara Is, n Mariana Is (Jan Agiguan). Hypo Palau (listed as L. argentatus, Pyle and Engbring 1985).
L. thayeri Thayer's Gull
Cas Nov-Apr Guadalupe I.
L. schistisagus Slaty-backed Gull
Cas Hawaiian Is (Kure I, Midway Is: Sand I, Feb Oahu). Acc s Izu Is (Torishima), Iwo Is (Kitaiwojima).
L. novaehollandiae Silver Gull
According to HANZAB there is "no justification for treatment of scopulinus as separate species...", although structural and plumage differences suggest allospecies treatment (Schodde, in Sibley and Monroe 1990; Enticott and Tipling 1997), and "recent phylogenetic research suggests that [the two] are not especially closely related." (Shirihai 2002).
L. n. forsteri Res New Caledonia.
F: New Caledonia (common on coast Noumea, Gregory); Noumea, Quested); 10 along coast Yate-Goro road, Fairbank); fairly common, T. Clarke).
L. n. novaehollandiae Cas Norfolk I (HANZAB).
novaehollandiae/scopulinus Cas Dec-Apr Vanuatu, Jan Fiji (Kadavu), Lord Howe I. Acc ?Society Is, ?Marquesas Is, duPont 1976).
L. scopulinus Red-billed Gull
Res NZ total pop 500,000 prs (NI, SI, Stewart I), Chatham Is, Snares Is 160 prs (Miskelly et al 2001), Auckland Is, Campbell I. Cas Norfolk I (HANZAB).
L. bulleri Black-billed Gull
Res NZ 50,000-100,000 prs (breeds NI, breeds SI, vis Stewart I). Cas Nov-Dec Snares Is.
L. ridibundus Black-headed Gull
Vis Nov-Mar Palau. Cas Ogasawara Is, Mariana Is, Hawaiian Is (Midway Is, Oahu), Solomon Is incl Bougainville.
F: Palau (Dec, de Vries; esp Malakal Harbor at Koror where 10-15 annually, Engbring 1988; 3-5 Koror harbor Dec, Feb, Talbot, S. Smith).
L. philadelphia Bonaparte's Gull
Cas Hawaiian Is. Acc Revillagigedo Is.
L. crassirostris Black-tailed Gull
Acc Ogasawara Is (Chichijima), Solomon Is (Bougainville).
L. heermanni Heermann's Gull
Cas Guadalupe I. Acc Revillagigedo Is (Socorro I).
L. fuliginosus Lava Gull
Res <400 prs Galapagos Is (Santa Cruz, San Cristobal, Isabela).
F: Galapagos Is (a few daily, Ottesen; SAnta Cruz: most at Academy Bay, Enticott and Tipling 1997); 12 on Santa Cruz, Baltra I, Santiago, Fernandina, Isabela, Chartier).
L. atricilla Laughing Gull
Vis Sep-Apr Hawaiian Is, Revillagigedo Is, Clipperton I. Cas Johnston I, Marshall Is, Kiribati, Guadalupe I, Galapagos Is. Acc Samoa (Upolu: Jan-Feb, Muse et al 1980, Muse and Muse 1982; Tutuila: alternate Mar, Elepaio 58:50), Fiji (May, Watling 2001).
L. pipixcan Franklin's Gull
Vis Oct-May Revillagigedo Is, Galapagos Is. Cas Hawaiian Is, Marshall Is, Johnston I, Caroline Is (Truk), Kiribati, Marquesas Is, Clipperton I. Acc NZ (Jul SI).
L. sabini Sabine's Gull
At sea Nov-Apr off w coast N. and S. America (>200 mi?). Acc Australia Mar-Jun.
L. furcatus Swallow-tailed Gull
Res Galapagos Is 10,000-15,000 prs. Post-breeding dispersal e to Ecuador, Peru.
F: Galapagos Is (217 seen, substantial nesting colony Punta Suarez on Espanola, also Champion and Enderby, Chartier).
L. tridactyla Black-legged Kittiwake
At sea n Pacific to 30N, incl Guadalupe I. Cas nw Hawaiian Is. Acc e Hawaiian Is (Oahu).


This family is often included in Laridae.

Sterna nilotica Gull-billed Tern
S. n. macrotarsa? Cas NZ (NI, SI).
S. n. subsp? Cas Hawaiian Is (Oahu, Molokai, Maui). Acc Mariana Is (fall Saipan, Bruner et al 1987, Pyle and Engbring 1985).
S. caspia Caspian Tern
S. c. strenua? Res NZ (NI, SI). Cas Hawaiian Is (Hawaii, Oahu, Maui). Acc Jan Kermadec Is, Lord Howe I (Bester), Dec Chatham Is.
S. maxima Royal Tern
S. m. maxima Cas Jun-Mar Galapagos Is.
S. elegans Elegant Tern
Acc Johnston I (Apr 1969, banded California May 1966, Atoll Res. Bull. 192).
S. bengalensis Lesser Crested-Tern
S. b. torresii Cas Solomon Is incl Bougainville (HANZAB).
S. bergii Great Crested-Tern
S. b. cristatus Breeds sw Pacific n of 25S incl Ogasawara Is (Baker 1951), Palau, Caroline Is (Truk, Pohnpei, ?Yap, ?Kosrae), Marshall Is, Kiribati, Solomon Is, Vanuatu, New Caledonia, Fiji, Tonga, ?Samoa, Society Is (Thibault et al 1975), Marquesas Is (Chester et al 1998), Tuamotu Is. Vis Mariana Is (Pyle and Engbring 1985). Cas Hawaiian Is (Oahu: Oct-Mar, French Frigate Shoals: Aug), Cook Is (Mangaia, Suwarrow, Holyoak 1980), Gambier Is, Feb-Mar Norfolk I, NZ (Sep-Apr NI, Jan SI). Acc Feb Lord Howe I, Apr Kermadec Is.
F: Palau (breeds Helen I, Ngeruangel I, common, Engbring 1988; 1-10 Peleliu, Koror, Talbot, S. Smith). Caroline Is (Truk: one, Feb, S. Smith). Solomon Is (Ghizo: up to 20 around Gizo, Hornbuckle 1999; Santa Isabel: 2, Hornbuckle 1999).
S. sandvicensis Sandwich Tern
Acc Hawaiian Is (Scott et al 2001).
S. striata White-fronted Tern
Res 50,000 prs NZ (NI, SI, Stewart I), Chatham Is, Auckland Is. At sea (juvs) Tasman Sea. Cas Feb-May Snares Is (Miskelly et al 2001), Nov-Jan Campbell I. Acc austral winter Norfolk I, Macquarie I.
S. sumatrana Black-naped Tern
S. s. sumatrana Breeds sw Pacific incl Palau, Caroline Is (Yap, Truk, Pohnpei), Marshall Is, Solomon Is, New Caledonia, Vanuatu, Tuvalu, Fiji, Tonga, Cook Is (Penrhyn, Manihiki, Suwarrow), Samoa (Watling 2001), Tokelau Is, Society Is, Marquesas Is, Tuamotu Is, Tubuai Is. Cas Mariana Is, Kiribati (Line Is). Acc Lord Howe I (Hutton 1991).
F: Solomon Is (Rennell: 12 L Tenggano, Richards; Ghizo: fairly common Ghizo, Richards; New Georgia Is: Uepi, Talbot). Palau (Dec, de Vries; common Babelduab south, Engbring 1988). Caroline Is (Yap: 3 by Mantaray Hotel, S. Smith; Truk: 2 from Blue Lagoon Resort, Weno, Talbot). Kiribati (9 Jul "res, poss breeding", Child 1982). Fiji (not common Mar, Myers; Taveuni: 2 Sep, T. Clarke; Viti Levu: 10 on cruise off Nadi Sep, T. Clarke). New Caledonia (5 off Point Mangin Oct, T. Clarke).
S. hirundo Common Tern
S. h. longipennis Vis Oct-Apr (first summer inds often winter) Mariana Is, Palau, Caroline Is (Yap, Truk, Pohnpei), Marshall Is, Solomon Is. Cas New Caledonia, Vanuatu, ?Fiji, Jan-Feb Lord Howe I, NZ (Nov-Apr NI and SI).
F: Solomon Is (Bougainville: common Jaba Delta, Hadden 1981; Florida Is: Mana I Jan, Talbot).
S. h. hirundo Vis Oct-Apr Galapagos Is. Cas Clipperton I. Acc Hawaiian Is (Pyle 2002), Cook Is (Aitutaki: banded as nestling Canada, Holyoak 1980).
S. paradisaea Arctic Tern
At sea e Pacific w to Hawaiian Is, Kiribati (Phoenix Is) Aug-Oct and Mar-Apr; Oct-Mar (immatures winter) s Pacific n to 35S: Oct-Jan NZ, Nov-Jan Snares Is, Nov Antipodes Is (Tennyson et al 2002). Acc Apr Lord Howe I, Apr Macquarie I. A record for Marshall Is (Enewetak) is unsubstantiated (Pyle and Engbring 1985).
F: Hawaiian Is (Hawaii: boat off Kona Apr, 6 prob this sp, T. Pratt; Oahu: one Apr, Nikas).
S. vittata Antarctic Tern
The population at Macquarie I is sometimes separated as S. v. macquariensis.
S. v. bethunei Breeds total pop 1000 prs NZ (Stewart I), Snares Is 70 prs (alt plumage Jul-Mar, Miskelly et al 2001), Auckland Is, Bounty I, Antipodes Is, Campbell I, Macquarie I 40 prs. At sea vicinity. Acc Chatham Is (Bell and Bell 2002).
S. dougalli Roseate Tern
S. d. bangsi Breeds Solomon Is, Loyalty Is. At sea vicinity.
S. d. gracilis Breeds New Caledonia. At sea vicinity.
F: New Caledonia (4 off Point Mangin Oct, T. Clarke).
S. d. subsp.? Cas Vanuatu (Bregulla 1992). Acc Fiji (Vatuira, questioned by Watling 2001), Tonga, Tuamotu Arch (duPont 1976).
S. albifrons Little Tern
S. a. sinensis Res Solomon Is, Mariana Is (Saipan, Pyle et al 2001), Hawaiian Is (Pearl and Hermes Reef: late 1980s; Midway Is: nested 1999 and 2000 [1999 alongside Least Terns]; nestlings at French Frigate Shoals 1980 and Oahu 1984 not identified to species vs Least Tern, Pyle et al 2001). Vis Oct-Apr Ogasawara Is, Mariana Is, Oct-Apr Palau, Caroline Is (Yap, Pohnpei, Truk, hypo Kosrae), Dec and Mar Lord Howe I, Oct-Apr NZ (these birds visitors from northern hemisphere [chick banded at nest near Tokyo Jun 99 rec Miranda; one banded Jun 2001 in Chiva Region of Japan recovered Firth of Thames Jan 2002], although one recovery in NZ of imm banded in Vic, Austr; this prob an aberrant event- C. Minton, pers comm., but T. Habraken believes birds from both sources occur in NZ. Two ads full breeding plumage NI Jan 2001 suggestive of Aust origin, D. Lawrie). Acc Fiji (Lakemba), Samoa (Upolu), Dec-Feb Chatham Is.
F: Caroline Is (Yap: 2 in lagoon, Dec, Talbot). Samoa (Upolu: one Apia Aug, Child 1979). Solomon Is (Bougainville: breeding Jaba Delta, Hadden 1981).
S. antillarum Least Tern
S. a. antillarum Cas Hawaiian Is (Midway Is: unsuccessful nest 1999, Pyle et al 2001).
S. nereis Fairy Tern
S. n. exsul Res New Caledonia, ?Loyalty Is.
S. n. davisae Res NZ (NI 10-12 prs, 40 inds).
S. n. subsp. Acc ?Fiji. May be nesting Samoa (Upolu: incr sightings there recent years, Watling 2001).
S. albostriatus Black-fronted Tern
This sp retained in Sterna following HANZAB.
Res NZ (breeds SI, vis NI, Stewart I). Acc Feb Snares Is (Miskelly et al 2001).
S. aleutica Aleutian Tern
At sea Oct-Apr nc Pacific s to 45N.
S. lunata Grey-backed Tern
Breeds c Pacific from Hawaiian Is 200,000 inds (Oahu: Moko Manu; Kure to Kaula, Pratt et al 1987), Mariana Is except inhabited is (Pratt et al 1987), Caroline Is (?Yap, Pyle and Engbring 1985), Wake I, Marshall Is, Johnston I, Kiribati (Phoenix Is, Line Is), n Solomon Is, Tonga (Nomuka), Samoa (Rose I), Society Is, Tuamotu Is. Extirp Tuvalu, Tokelau Is (Watling 2001). Vis Palau (not listed as breeding, Engbring 1988). Cas Fiji (not currently breeding, Watling 2001), Marquesas Is (Chester et al 1998), Easter I. Acc Iwo Is (Kitaiwojima), Aug Clipperton I.
F: Hawaiian Is (Midway Is: 100+ prs Eastern I Apr, Vandenberg); Oahu: nest Moko Manu I but hard to see; also offshore from Koko Head Regional Park and Diamond Head lighthouse, Pratt 1993). Palau (Dec, de Vries).
S. anaethetus Bridled Tern
S. a. anaethetus Breeds Palau, Solomon Is, New Caledonia (Doughty), Fiji (Watling 2001), Samoa (Upolu, Watling 2001), Tonga (Tongatapu, Vavau, Watling 2001), Wallis and Futuna (Uvea, Watling 2001). At sea vicinity, n to Iwo Is (Watling 2001, Muse and Muse 1982). Acc Marshall Is (Bikar, Pratt et al 1987), NZ (Nov SI).
F: Solomon Is (Rennell: L Tenggano, Richards; Vella Lavella: 3, Hornbuckle 1999). Palau (Dec, de Vries; common, Engbring 1988; 5-10 ferry Peleliu to Koror, Talbot, S. Smith). New Caledonia (seen off Noumea (2) Oct, T. Clarke). Fiji (Viti Levu: one on cruise from Nadi Sep, T. Clarke).
S. a. nelsoni At sea off Mexico Mar-Aug and Sep-Feb, poss further south?
S. fuscata Sooty Tern
S. f. nubilosa This population often included in oahuensis. Breeds Ogasawara Is (Nishinoshima). Vis Iwo Is. Acc Caroline Is (Pohnpei, Baker 1951). At sea vicinity, imms dispersive.
S. f. oahuensis Breeds Mariana Is except Guam, Palau, Caroline Is (Truk, Pohnpei, ?Yap, ?Kosrae), Marshall Is, Marcus I, Wake I, Hawaiian Is 1,500,000 prs, 8,000,000 inds, Kiribati (Phoenix Is 1,000,000 prs, Line Is 10,000,000 prs). At sea vicinity, imms dispersive.
F: Hawaiian Is (Midway Is: Eastern I 1000+ prs Apr, Vandenberg; Oahu: abund Apr-Sep Moko Manu and Manana, pelagic other times, Pratt 1993). Palau (Southwest Is: abundant only at Helen I, Engbring 1988).
S. f. serrata (incl kermadeci, HANZAB) Breeds Solomon Is, New Caledonia, Vanuatu, Norfolk I 40,000-70,000 prs, Lord Howe I 1,000,000 prs, Kermadec Is c20,000 prs, Fiji, Tonga, Cook Is (Penrhyn 100-10,000 prs, Suwarrow 100,000-10,000,000 prs, extirp Palmerston, Holyoak 1980), Samoa (Rose I), Marquesas Is 1,000,000 prs, Society Is, Tubuai Is, Tuamotu Arch. Cas NZ (Feb NI, Feb and Sep SI). At sea vicinity but imms dispersive; pelagic non-breeding (birds banded Lord Howe I recovered mid-Pacific and near Philippine Is, Hutton 1991). Eggs Sep-Dec Lord Howe I, Norfolk I, Kermadec Is.
F: Lord Howe I (seen Apr, Bielewicz; Dec, Quested; easily seen esp North Bay, Walker). Norfolk I present Sep-Apr, Hermes; 6 at Anson Bay, Duranti). New Caledonia (30+ one-hour seawatch off Noumea Oct, T. Clarke).
S. f. crissalis Breeds Revillagigedo Is, Clipperton I, Galapagos Is (Culpepper), Sala y Gomez Is, Desventurada Is (San Felix I), Easter I. At sea vicinity, imms dispersive.
S. f. luctuosa Breeds Juan Fernandez Is. At sea vicinity.
Chlidonias hybrida Whiskered Tern
This sp and the next two sometimes included in Sterna, but here retained in Chlidonias following HANZAB. Establishment of Chlidonias as masculine is discussed by David and Gosselin (2002b). Use of hybrida instead of hybridus is discussed by David and Gosselin (2002a,b); hybrida is a masculine noun, not an adjective, and is thus invariable.
C. h. javanicus Cas Solomon Is (Bougainville), Lord Howe I (Dec, Jordan, BIRDING-AUS), NZ (Mar and May-Oct NI).
C. h. subsp? Acc Mariana Is, Caroline Is (Yap), Palau (Feb 2002, 3 Koror Harbor, S. Smith), Hawaiian Is (Scott et al 2001).
C. leucopterus White-winged Black Tern
Vis mostly Sep-Apr Mariana Is, Palau, Solomon Is (Bougainville; Rennell: acc L Tenggano), Norfolk I, NZ (NI, SI, one breeding rec). Cas Nov and Feb Lord Howe I. Acc Ogasawara Is.
F: Palau (Peleliu: 5-10 Koror harbor Dec, prob this sp, Talbot).
C. niger Black Tern
C. n. surinamensis? Cas Hawaiian Is. Acc Clipperton I, Galapagos Is.
Anous stolidus Brown Noddy
A. s. pileatus Breeds Ogasawara Is, Iwo Is, Hawaiian Is 500,000 inds, Mariana Is, Palau, Caroline Is, Society Is (present Sep-Mar), Solomon Is, New Caledonia, Vanuatu, Norfolk I, Lord Howe I several hundred prs, Kermadec Is, Fiji, Samoa, Tuvalu, Tokelau Is, Marquesas Is, Tuamotu Is, Cook Is (Holyoak 1980), Gambier Is 150-242 prs, Pitcairn Is. Cas s Izu Is. Acc NZ (Jun NI). Eggs Lord Howe I Oct-Jan (Hutton 1991). At sea vicinity of breeding locations and intervening ocean.
F: Hawaiian Is (Midway Is: common Apr, Vandenberg; common offshore Oahu, flocks more than 3 usually Blacks, Pratt 1993). Solomon Is (Ghizo: 10+ Gizo to Kolombangara and Vella Lavella, Hornbuckle 1999). Lord Howe I (seen Dec, ground nester, Quested; easily seen Apr esp North Bay, Walker). Palau (Dec, de Vries; abund, nest in trees away from coast, Engbring 1988). Mariana Is (common throughout, Talbot, S. Smith). Caroline Is (common throughout, S. Smith, Talbot). Samoa (Savaii: common Aug, Reed 1980). Norfolk I (present Oct-May, Hermes).
A. s. ridgwayi Breeds Revillagigedo Is, Clipperton I, Easter I, Sala y Gomez Is, Desventurada Is (San Ambrosio I, San Felix I).
A. s. galapagensis Breeds Galapagos Is. At sea year round in vicinity.
F: Galapagos Is (977 throughout archipelago Jun-Jul, Chartier).
A. minutus Black Noddy
Sometimes considered conspecific with A. tenuirostris of the Indian Ocean.
A. m. minutus Breeds From Solomon Is and New Caledonia e to Kiribati (Line Is, Phoenix Is), Cook Is (Penrhyn 000s, Rakahanga 000s, Manihiki 000s, Pukapuka 000s, Suwarrow, Takutea, Holyoak 1980), Tuamotu Is, Gambier Is <50 prs, and s to Lord Howe I 36 prs, Norfolk I <10,000 prs, Kermadec Is 1000 prs (but not Niue or Samoa, Watling 2001, but seen Savaii Aug, Reed 1980). At sea vicinity, but apparent non-breeding ads and imms banded Fiji recovered Solomon Is (Watling 2001). Cas Vanuatu, NZ (Aug-May NI and SI). Eggs Dec-Jan Norfolk I, Dec-Mar Lord Howe I (Hutton 1991).
F: Lord Howe I (seen Dec, tree nester, Quested; Apr, Bielewicz; easily seen Apr esp North Bay, Walker). Solomon Is (1 Ghizo and Kolombangara, Hornbuckle 1999). Samoa (Savaii: flock 8 Aug, Reed 1980). Norfolk I (present all year, Hermes; very common, esp Rocky Point, Duranti).
A. m. marcusi Breeds Marcus I, nw Hawaiian Is (French Frigate Shoals to Wake I, Wilds unpubl. ms. fide R. Pyle) to Mariana Is except Guam (Pyle and Engbring 1985), Palau, Caroline Is. Vis Wake I (Pyle and Engbring 1985). Cas Ogasawara Is, Iwo Is. At sea vicinity.
F: Palau (Dec, de Vries; abund, nests in mangroves coastally, Engbring 1988). Hawaiian Is (Midway Is: very common Sand I Apr, Vandenberg).
A. m. melanogenys This taxon may differ at the species level from the previous two; marcusi and minutus breed in trees, while melanogenys breeds in rocky areas (Wilds, unpubl. ms. fide R.Pyle).
Breeds Hawaiian Is 90,000 inds (Hawaii to Kauai, Wilds unpubl. ms. fide R. Pyle). At sea vicinity.
F: Hawaiian Is (Kauai: from land, try Kee Beach, Pratt 1993; Oahu: Nuupia Pond, Manana Is on beaches; Pratt 1993; Mauai: Waianapanapa Caves SP, Pratt 1993; Hawaii: Holei Sea Arch, Pratt 1993).
A. m. diamesus Breeds Clipperton I, Cocos I. At sea vicinity.
Procelsterna cerulea Blue-Gray Noddy
Subspecies are poorly-defined; often treated as only two subspecies, cerulea and albivitta. Some authors consider these separate species, first 5 subsp below in P. cerulea Blue Noddy and remainder in P. albivitta Gray Noddy. However murphyi has characters intermediate between cerulea and albivitta (Thibault and Bretagnolle 1999).
P. c. saxatilis Breeds Marcus I, nw Hawaiian Is 16,000 inds, Marshall Is (Taongi, Bikar, Pratt et al 1987; Pyle and Engbring 1985). At sea vicinity. Acc (this subsp?) Iwo Is (Kitaiwojima).
P. c. cerulea Breeds Kiribati except Phoenix Is. At sea vicinity.
P. c. nebouxi Breeds Kiribati (Phoenix Is), Tuvalu, Samoa (Namua, Tutuila, Aunuu, Manua), Cook Is (Penrhyn, ?Mangaia, Holyoak 1980). At sea vicinity. Cas Aug Fiji (Watling 2001), Tonga (this subsp? Tafahi, Watling 2001).
P. c. teretirostris Breeds Marquesas Is, Tuamotu Arch except Gambier Is, Society Is. At sea vicinity. Eggs Sep-Oct Marquesas Is (Tahuata, Chester et al 1998).
F: Marquesas Is (Tahuata: seacliffs Hanamoenoa Beach, Chester et al 1998).
P. c. murphyi Breeds Gambier Is 60-123 prs. At sea vicinity.
P. c. albivitta Breeds (this subsp?) New Caledonia, Lord Howe I 100-1000 prs, Norfolk I 1000-10,000 prs, Kermadec Is 2000-3000 prs, Tonga (Eua, Ata), NZ (ne NI: Three Kings Is, White I, Poor Knights Is, Mokohinau Is; acc Apr SI). At sea vicinity. Eggs Oct-Dec Norfolk I, Sep-Oct Lord Howe I (Hutton 1991).
F: Lord Howe I (common Dec, Quested; Jan, Shimba; Apr Bielewicz; abundant at Ball's Pyramid Apr, Walker). Norfolk I (seen offshore May, 30+ Phillip I, R. Clarke; seen from land, Hobcroft).
P. c. skottsbergii Breeds Pitcairn Is (Henderson I, Pitcairn I), Easter I. At sea vicinity.
P. c. imitatrix Breeds Desventurada Is (San Ambrosio I, San Felix I), Sala-y-Gomez I. At sea vicinity.
Gygis alba Common White-Tern
First 4 subspecies considered to vary only clinally and combined as candida by Holyoak and Thibault (in HANZAB).
G. a. rothschildi Breeds 80,000 inds Hawaiian Is (nw islands, Oahu).
F: Hawaiian Is (Midway Is: 100s of thousands Apr, Vandenberg).
G. a. pacifica Breeds Polynesia e to Easter I, Clipperton I, Cocos I, Desventurada Is (Sala y Gomez Is), including Samoa (Muse and Muse 1982), Cook Is (Holyoak 1980), Marquesas Is (Hatutu), Tuamotu Arch, Gambier Is <600 prs, but excluding Kiribati (Phoenix Is, Line Is), and Marquesas Is (Eiao to Fatu Hiva). Acc Revillagigedo Is, Galapagos Is (Genovesa, at sea to sw).
F: Samoa (Savaii: common, Reed 1980).
G. a. candida Breeds Mariana Is, Palau, Caroline Is, Marshall Is, Wake I, New Caledonia, Fiji (Rotuma, Vatulele, Vatoa, Onoilau). Vis Iwo Is, Ogasawara Is, Solomon Is incl Santa Cruz Is, Vanuatu.
F: Palau (Dec, de Vries; common main islands, Engbring 1988). Mariana Is (common, Talbot, S. Smith). Caroline Is (common, Talbot, S. Smith).
G. a. royana May vary only clinally from G. a. candida. Breeds Norfolk I 2000-2500 prs, Lord Howe I 60-100 prs, Kermadec Is <1000 prs. Cas NZ (Apr-Jul NI, acc Mar SI). Eggs Oct-Apr Lord Howe I (Hutton 1991).
F: Lord Howe I (Apr, Bielewicz; very easily seen around settlement Apr, Walker). Norfolk I (present all year, few in winter, Hermes; very common throughout, Duranti).
G. a. leucopes Breeds Pitcairn Is (Henderson I).
G. microrhyncha Little White-Tern
Considered conspecific with G. alba by some authors based on limited intergradation in Marquesas Is, although differences in bill coloration may provide an isolating mechanism (Pratt 2000).
Breeds Kiribati (Phoenix Is, Line Is), Marquesas Is (Eiao to Fatu Hiva).


Uria aalge Common Murre
U. a. inornata At sea Oct-Mar n and nw Pacific; cas >200 mi offshore?
U. a. californica At sea Oct-Mar ne Pacific; cas >200 mi offshore?
U. lomvia Thick-billed Murre
U. l. arra At sea Oct-Mar nc Pacific; cas >200 mi offshore?
Cepphus columba Pigeon Guillemot
C. c. subsp. At sea Oct-Mar n Pacific; cas >200 mi offshore?
Brachyramphus perdix Long-billed Murrelet
At sea Oct-Mar n Pacific; cas >200 mi offshore?
Synthliboramphus hypoleucus Xantus's Murrelet
S. h. hypoleuca Breeds Guadalupe I 2400-3500 inds. Eggs Feb-Mar. At sea Aug-Sep n to California.
S. antiquus Ancient Murrelet
Acc Oct-Mar Iwo Is (Iwojima), s Izu Is (Torishima).
S. wumizusume Japanese Murrelet
Breeds s Izu Is (Torishima). At sea vicinity.
Endomychura carveri Craveri's Murrelet
At sea Jul-Dec off nw Mexico; cas >200 miles offshore?
Ptychoramphus aleuticus Cassin's Auklet
Res Guadalupe I. Eggs Apr-Jul. At sea Oct-Mar n Pacific generally within 200 miles of land, s to 23N off Mexico. Acc Hawaiian Is (Oahu).
Aethia psittacula Parakeet Auklet
At sea Oct-Mar nw Pacific. Acc Hawaiian Is (Kure I, Midway Is).
A. cristatella Crested Auklet
At sea Oct-Mar nw Pacific.
A. pusilla Least Auklet
At sea Oct-Mar nw Pacific.
A. pygmaea Whiskered Auklet
At sea Oct-Mar nw Pacific.
Cerorhinca monocerata Rhinoceros Auklet
At sea Oct-Mar n Pacific, se to 24N incl Guadalupe I.
Fratercula corniculata Horned Puffin
At sea Oct-Mar n Pacific. Acc nw Hawaiian Is.
F. cirrhata Tufted Puffin
At sea Oct-Mar n Pacific. Alt ad Jun 1999 44N 133.5W (Smith). Acc Hawaiian Is (Laysan I).


Pterocles exustus Chestnut-bellied Sandgrouse
Int Hawaiian Is (Hawaii).
F: Hawaiian Is (Hawaii: West Hawaii Concrete Plant, paved road to plant 7 am; also Waimea-Kohala Airport area, Pratt 1993; jct 199 and 200, Faike; Waimea airport runway mid-day, Faike).