Family endemic to NZ. Traditionally considered 3 species, Brown Kiwi, Little Spotted Kiwi, and Great Spotted Kiwi, but genetic studies indicate that Brown Kiwi may consist of as many as 5 species (Baker et al 1995, Burbidge et al 2003). All species are essentially sedentary.

Apteryx mantelli North Island Brown Kiwi
Burbidge et al (2003) demonstrate that this taxon is specifically distinct from the next two.
Res NZ (NI 30,000, Little Barrier I 1000).
F: Aroha Island, north of Kerikeri, and Mt. Bledisloe neat Waitangi, flashlight after dark (Roberson); Ohakune (contact Kerry Oates); Trounson Kauri Park.
A. rowii Rowi
Data in Baker et al (1995) indicate this population is probably specifically distinct, but more closely related to NI populations than to other SI populations. Burbidge et al (2003) and Worthy and Holdaway (2002) consider the Okarito population distinct at the species level.
Res NZ (Okarito 130).
A. australis Tokoeka
While allozyme studies in Baker et al (1995) support the OSNZ (1990) treatment, where lawryi of Stewart Island is considered subspecifically distinct, cytochrome b studies in the same paper are equivocal. Status of the Haast population is uncertain; more recent studies by Burbidge et al (2003) suggest that the three populations, Haast, Fiordland, and Stewart Island are distinct at least at the subspecific level. The Burbidge study (2003) suggests also that there are two lineages within the Fiordland population, possibly distinct enough to be considered separate subspecies.
A. a. nov. subsp. (fusca?) Res NZ (SI: Haast 200-300 inds).
A. a. australis Res NZ (SI: Fiordland 600 inds).
A. a. lawryi Res NZ (Stewart I 20,000 inds).
F: Phillip Smith's Bravo Nature Tours takes Kiwi Trip to Ocean Beach on Stewart I; Mason Bay, Stewart I.
A. owenii Little Spotted Kiwi
Res NZ (Extirp NI, SI, D'Urville I; int? Kapiti I 1000; reint Hen I 50, Red Mercury I 50, Tiritiri Matangi I 50+, Long I 10).
F: Stay overnight Tiritiri Matangi I and spotlight area around and below nursery.
A. haastii Great Spotted Kiwi
Res NZ (SI 10-20,000 in 3 populations: nw SI s to Buller River; Paparoa Range; Hurunui River to Arthur's Pass).
F: Try area around Mt Rolleston Lookout at Arthur's Pass; L Brunner area; Paparoa Ranges; Heaphy Track (esp Gouland Downs).


Nothoprocta perdicaria Chilean Tinamou
N. p. perdicaria Int Easter I (Long 1981).


Family restricted to southern hemisphere with exception of Spheniscus mendiculus Galapagos Penguin, which has breeding colonies at the north end of Isabela in the Northern Hemisphere, as well as elsewhere in the Galapagos. All species but South African S. demersus Jackass Penguin and South American S. humboldti Humboldt Penguin have been recorded in the Pacific Region; there appear not to be any records of Humboldt Penguin over 200 miles from the S. American coastline.
Family consists of 17 species if Eudyptes chrysolophus Macaroni Penguin and E. schlegeli Royal Penguin considered full species.
Adults range near nesting sites during the breeding season, and are generally sedentary throughout the year, but juveniles and immatures may wander extensively after fledging, returning to breeding colonies only after 2 years or more. Breeding adults molt ashore or on ice after young are independent; individuals may appear far from the breeding range when forced ashore to molt.

Aptenodytes patagonicus King Penguin
A. p. halli Breeds Macquarie I 70,000 prs. Eggs Nov-Mar.
A. p. subsp? Cas Aug-Feb Campbell I, Feb-Apr Antipodes Is, Auckland Is. Acc Jan-Feb Snares Is, NZ (SI).
A. forsteri Emperor Penguin Acc NZ (Apr SI); 13 of 15 recs from outside normal range are Jan-Apr (HANZAB). Eggs Apr-Jun.
Pygoscelis papua Gentoo Penguin
That Pygoscelis is masculine was discussed by David and Gosselin (2002b); papua is invariable, however.
P. p. papua Breeds Macquarie I 4700 prs. Cas Dec-Aug Campbell I, Nov Antipodes Is (Tennyson et al 2002), NZ (Sep-Feb SI). Acc Dec Snares Is. Eggs Aug-Nov.
P. adeliae Adelie Penguin
Cas Nov and Feb Macquarie I. Acc NZ (Dec SI). Eggs Nov-Dec.
P. antarcticus Chinstrap Penguin
Acc NZ (Nov SI), Nov Antipodes Is, Mar Campbell I, Dec-Mar Macquarie I. Eggs Nov-Dec.
Eudyptes chrysocome Rockhopper Penguin
Some authors consider E. c. moseleyi a separate species; Shirihai (2002) cited available evidence.
E. c. filholi Breeds Macquarie I 300,000 prs, Antipodes Is 50,000 prs, but 4000 prs Tennyson et al 2002), Campbell I 51,000 prs, Auckland Is 5000-10,000 prs. Cas Dec-Mar Snares Is (most molting, HANZAB), Campbell I, Chatham Is, NZ (Jan-Mar SI). Acc (this taxon?) Bounty Is (Shirihai 2002). Eggs Oct-Nov.
E. c. chrysocome Cas Snares Is; max 2 birds per year 1985-1999 may have been same birds, as no imms seen (Miskelly et al 2001) . Eggs Oct-Nov.
E. c. moseleyi Cas Aug-Jan Chatham Is. Acc NZ (Dec-Jan NI). Eggs Oct-Nov.
E. pachyrhynchus Fiordland Penguin
Breeds NZ (perhaps 2500-3000 prs in all- Shirihai 2002; sw SI 1025 prs, Solander Is 115 prs, Codfish I 140 prs, w and s Stewart I). Reg Nov-Mar Snares Is; up to 30 imms molting per year Dec-Mar (Miskelly et al 2001). Cas NZ (NI, SI), Chatham Is, Auckland Is, Campbell I, Macquarie I. Eggs Jul-Aug.
F: Monro Beach Nov; Stewart I (Halfmoon Bay and Paterson Inlet) Nov; Milford Sound boat cruises Nov.
E. robustus Snares Penguin
Based on egg dates, it is possible that birds breeding on the Snares Western Chain may be E. sclateri Erect-crested Penguin or even an un-named species (Miskelly et al 2001; Robertson and Van Tets 1982).
Breeds Snares Is 23,000 prs. Cas Nov-Mar (mostly molting imms Jan-Feb) NZ (SI), Chatham Is, Antipodes Is, Campbell I, Macquarie I. Acc NZ (Jan-Feb NI). Eggs Sep-Oct North East I, Nov (6 wks later) Western Chain (Miskelly et al 2001).
E. sclateri Erect-crested Penguin
Breeds Antipodes Is 115,000 prs, but 52,000 prs (Tennyson et al 2002), Bounty Is 115,000 prs (although major declines in recent years with 77,000 prs total for the species in mid-1990s), Auckland Is (Disappointment I) few, Campbell I apparently now extirpated (Shirihai 2002). Reg up to 10, max 35 per year molting Snares Is (Miskelly et al 2001). Cas NZ (NI, SI, Stewart I), Chatham Is, Macquarie I. Eggs Oct-Nov.
E. chrysolophus Macaroni Penguin
Cas Nov-Jan Snares Is. Acc Campbell I, Macquarie I. Eggs Oct-Dec.
E. schlegeli Royal Penguin
Often considered conspecific with E. chrysolophus Macaroni Penguin; OSNZ (1990) and Christidis and Boles (1994) point out that identification away from breeding areas is problematic. Harrison (1983) considered schlegeli a "colour phase" most common at Macquarie I. Intermediates occur at Macquarie I.
Breeds Macquarie I 848,719 prs (Shirihai 2002). Reg summer-fall Auckland Is, Campbell I. Cas Feb-Mar Snares Is, NZ (SI). Acc NZ (NI). Eggs Oct-Dec.
Megadyptes antipodes Yellow-eyed Penguin
There are two genetically distinct populations, southern (Auckland Is, Campbell Is), and northern (Miskelly et al 2001).
Breeds NZ (total 6-7000 inds; SI 365 prs, Codfish I 120-150 prs, Stewart I 100-150 prs), Auckland Is 520-570 prs, Campbell I 310-480 prs. Cas NZ (NI), Chatham Is. Acc Dec Snares Is. Eggs Sep-Oct.
F: Otago Peninsula, Stewart I (Paterson Inlet).
Eudyptula minor Little Penguin
Although several subspecies have been proposed (see below; OSNZ 1990), some authors consider them indistinguishable morphometrically, forming a cline (OSNZ 1990). E. m. albosignata "White-flippered Penguin" of Motunau I and Banks Peninsula differs phenotypically but interbreeds with E. m. variabilis at Motunau I. Recent genetic studies (Banks et al 2002) indicate two strongly-differentiated clades comprising Australian and southern NZ birds (minor) in one and the remaining NZ birds in the other; the relationships of albosignata were equivocal, possibly a result of gene flow from both clades. Total population for species about 1,000,000 (Shirihai 2002).
E. m. iredalei Breeds NZ (NI, n of Kawhia and East Cape; cas s to Taranaki and Hawkes Bay).
E. m. variabilis Breeds NZ (s NI and n SI, incl Cook Strait; Cape Egmont to Punakaiki in the west, Hawkes Bay to Kaikoura, incl Motunau I, in the east.)
E. m. chathamensis Breeds Chatham Is.
E. m. albosignata Breeds NZ (SI: Motunau I and Banks Peninsula; cas n to Gisborne and s to Southland.)
E. m. minor Breeds NZ (SI: Greymouth and Oamaru south, and Stewart I; cas n to Golden Bay and s to Snares Is.)
E. m. subsp? Cas Lord Howe I.
Eggs Jul-Dec.
F: Common Bay Of Islands, Marlborough Sounds, Stewart I.
Spheniscus magellanicus Magellanic Penguin
Breeds Juan Fernandez Is. Acc (poss ship-assisted) NZ (Mar NI, Mar SI). Eggs Sep-Oct.
S. mendiculus Galapagos Penguin
Breeds Galapagos Is (total 1400-2700 inds; Isabela, Fernandina, Bartolome. At sea vicinity, including San Salvador, Santa Cruz, Santa Maria. Eggs Jul-Dec.
F: Dozen at Bartolome Jul (Ottesen); seen Punta Espinosa, Fernandina, and Black Beach, Isabela (Chartier).


This family, which is restricted to the Northern Hemisphere, contains 5 species which generally occur in temperate regions, and, although strongly migratory, remain close to the coastline. Eggs May-Jul.

Gavia pacifica Pacific Loon
Cas Nov-Mar Guadalupe I. Acc Hawaiian Is (Oahu; Pyle 2002).


An almost cosmopolitan family containing 21 species in 6 genera. In the Pacific Region, grebes occur regularly only in the sw on larger islands with freshwater lakes and ponds, where they are essentially sedentary, but capable of long-range movements in unfavorable conditions. Some movement between breeding and winter ranges in a few species.

Tachybaptus ruficollis Little Grebe
This species and T. novaehollandiae (below) have been treated as conspecific, but they are sympatric in New Guinea (Sibley and Monroe 1990; Mayr and Diamond 2001). Iris color differs in the area of sympatry: while northeastern subspecies of ruficollis have pale irises (eg poggei), irises are dark in southeastern subspecies, including collaris (pers. comm. Alain Fosse, Paul Van Gasse).
T. r. poggei Cas Ogasawara Is.
T. r. collaris Res Solomon Is (Bougainville).
F: Rare Torokina, L Loloru, South Bougainville, L Billy Mitchell (Hadden 1981).
T. novaehollandiae Australasian Grebe
T. n. rennellianus Res Solomon Is (Rennell; acc Guadalcanal? Mayr and Diamond 2001).
F: Few L Tenggano (Richards).
T. n. leucosternos Res Vanuatu, New Caledonia.
T. n. novaehollandiae Res NZ (NI: Northland 50, cas SI, has bred).
F: Lake Kereta.
T. n. subsp? Cas Lord Howe I (Hutton 1991, Bielewicz, Bester).
Podilymbus podiceps Pied-billed Grebe
P. p. podiceps? Res Hawaiian Is (Hawaii: Aimakapa Pond). Cas Oct-Apr Hawaiian Is.
P. p. antarcticus? Res? Galapagos Is (Isabela, Santa Maria, Santa Cruz, San Cristobal).
P. p. subsp? Vis Galapagos Is. Acc Guadalupe I, Revillagigedo Is.
Poliocephalus poliocephalus Hoary-headed Grebe
Cas Lord Howe I (Hutton 1991, Bielewicz), NZ (NI, SI; has bred). Acc Feb Snares Is (Best 1976).
P. rufopectus New Zealand Grebe (Dabchick)
Breeds NZ (NI, total 1200-1500: Northland 200, Volcanic Plateau 500, Hawke's Bay 400, Wairarapa 150, Manawatu 400.)
F: Lake Kereta; Rotorua area: L Rotorua, Blue L, L Okareka.
Podiceps cristatus Great Crested Grebe
P. c. australis Breeds NZ (SI, total 250: Marlborough 20, Canterbury 170, West Coast 40, Fiordland/Otago 20). Cas NZ (NI).
F: L Pearson.
P. auritus Horned Grebe
Acc Hawaiian Is (Nov-Mar Kauai: one bird, 1976-77; Pratt et al 1987).
P. grisegena Red-necked Grebe
Acc Hawaiian Is (Pyle 2002).
P. nigricollis Black-necked (Eared) Grebe
P. n. californicus Acc (this subsp?) Hawaiian Is (Nov-Mar Oahu 1983 single bird for several months; Pratt et al 1987), Guadalupe I.
P. n. nigricollis Cas Ogasawara Is.
P. aechmophorus/clarkii Western/Clark's Grebe
Acc Nov-Mar Guadalupe I.